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THE   

THEOSOPHICAL GLOSSARY

BY

H. P. BLAVATSKY

AUTHOR OF "ISIS UNVEILED", “THE SECRET DOCTRINE",  " THE KEY TO THEOSOPHY" 

T  U  V  W  X  Y 

 

 

 

T  

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T.—The twentieth letter of the alphabet. In the Latin Alphabet its value was 160, and, with a dash over it (T) signified 160,000. It is the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, the Tau whose equivalents are T, TH, and numerical value 400. Its symbols are as a tau, a cross +, the foundation framework of construction; and as a teth (T), the ninth letter, a snake and the basket of the Eleusinian mysteries.

 

Taaroa (Tah.). The creative power and chief god of the Tahitians.

 

Tab-nooth (Heb.). Form; a Kabbalist term.

 

Tad-aikya (Sk.). “Oneness”; identification or unity with the Absolute. The universal, unknowable Essence (Parahrahm) has no name in the Vedas but is referred to generally as Tad, “ That”.

 

Tafne (Eg.). A goddess; daughter of the sun, represented with the head of a lioness.

 

Tahmurath (Pers.). The Iranian Adam, whose steed was Simorgh Anke, the griffin-phśnix or infinite cycle. A repetition or reminiscence of Vishnu and Garuda.

 

Tahor (Heb.). Lit., Mundus, the world; a name given to the Deity, which identification indicates a belief in Pantheism.

 

Taht Esmun (Eg.). The Egyptian Adam; the first human ancestor.

 

Taijasi (Sk.). The radiant, flaming—from Tejas “fire”; used sometimes to designate the Mânasa-rűpa, the “thought-body ”, and also the stars.

 

Tairyagyonya (Sk.). The fifth creation, or rather the fifth stage of creation, that of the lower animals, reptiles, etc. (See “ Tiryaksrotas ”.)

 

Taittrîya (Sk.). A Brâhmana of the Yajur Veda.

 

Talapoin (Siam.). A Buddhist monk and ascetic in Siam; some of these ascetics are credited with great magic powers.

 

Talisman. From the Arabic tilism or tilsam, a “magic image”. An object, whether in stone, metal, or sacred wood; often a piece of parchment filled with characters and images traced under certain planetary influences in magical formulć given by one versed in occult sciences to one unversed, either with the object of preserving him from evil, or for the accomplishment of certain desires. The greatest virtue and efficacy of the talisman, however, resides in the faith of its possessor;

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not because of the credulity of the latter, or that it possesses no virtue, but because faith is a quality endowed with a most potent creative power; and therefore—unconsciously to the believer—intensifies a hundredfold the power originally imparted to the talisman by its maker.

 

Talmidai Hakhameem (Heb.). A class of mystics and Kabbalists whom the Zohar calls “Disciples of the Wise”, and who were Sârisim or voluntary eunuchs, becoming such for spiritual motives. (See Matthew xix., 11-12, a passage implying the laudation of such an act.)

 

Talmud (Heb.). Rabbinic Commentaries on the Jewish faith. It is composed of two parts, the older Mishnah, and the more modern Gemara. Hebrews, who call the Pentateuch the written law, call the Talmud the unwritten or oral law. [w.w.w.]

The Talmud contains the civil and canonical laws of the Jews, who claim a great sanctity for it. For, save the above-stated difference between the Pentateuch and the Talmud, the former, they say, can claim no priority over the latter, as both were received simultaneously by Moses on Mount Sinai from Jehovah, who wrote the one and delivered the other orally.

 

Tamâla Pattra (Sk.). Stainless, pure, sage-like. Also the name of a leaf of the Laurus Cassia, a tree regarded as having various very occult and magical properties.

 

Tamarisk, or Erica. A sacred tree in Egypt of great occult virtues. Many of the temples were surrounded with such trees, pre-eminently one at Philć, sacred among the sacred, as the body of Osiris was s to lie buried under it.

 

Tamas (Sk.). The quality of darkness, “foulness” and inertia; also of ignorance, as matter is blind. A term used in metaphysical philosophy. It is the lowest of the three gunas or fundamental qualities.

 

Tammuz (Syr.). A Syrian deity worshipped by idolatrous Hebrews as well as by Syrians. The women of Israel held annual lamentations over Adonis (that beautiful youth being identical with Tammuz). The feast held in his honour was solstitial, and began with the new moon, in the month of Tammuz (July), taking place chiefly at Byblos in Phśnicia; but it was also celebrated as late as the fourth century of our era at Bethlehem, as we find St. Jerome writing (Epistles p. 9) his lamentations in these words: “Over Bethlehem, the grove of Tammuz, that is of Adonis, was casting its shadow! And in the grotto where formerly the infant Jesus cried, the lover of Venus was being mourned.” Indeed, in the Mysteries of Tammuz or Adonis a whole week was spent in lamentations and mourning. The funereal processions were succeeded by a fast, and later by rejoicings; for after the fast Adonis-Tammuz was regarded as raised from the dead, and wild orgies of joy, of eating and

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drinking, as now in Easter week, went on uninterruptedly for several days.

 

Tamra-Parna (Sk.). Ceylon, the ancient Taprobana.

 

Tamti (Chald.). A goddess, the same as Belita. Tamti-Belita is the personified Sea, the mother of the City of Erech, the Chaldean Necropolis. Astronomically, Tamti is Astoreth or Istar, Venus.

 

Tanaim (Heb.). Jewish Initiates, very learned Kabbalists in ancient times. The Talmud contains sundry legends about them and gives the chief names among them.

 

Tanga-Tango (Peruv.). An idol much reverenced by the Peruvians. It is the symbol of the Triune or the Trinity, “One in three, and three in One”, and existed before our era.

 

Tanha (Pali). The thirst for life. Desire to live and clinging to life on this earth. This clinging is that which causes rebirth or reincarnation.

 

Tanjur (Tib.). A collection of Buddhist works translated from the Sanskrit into Tibetan and Mongolian. It is the more voluminous canon, comprising 225 large volumes on miscellaneous subjects. The Kanjur, which contains the commandments or the “Word of the Buddha ”, has only 108 volumes.

 

Tanmâtras (Sk.). The types or rudiments of the five Elements; the subtile essence of these, devoid of all qualities and identical with the properties of the five basic Elements—earth, water, fire, air and ether; i.e., the tanmâtras are, in one of their aspects, smell, taste, touch, sight, and hearing.

 

Tantra (Sk.). Lit., “rule or ritual”. Certain mystical and magical works, whose chief peculiarity is the worship of the female power, personified in Sakti. Devî or Durgâ (Kâlî, Siva’s wife) is the special energy connected with sexual rites and magical powers-The worst form of black magic or sorcery.

 

Tântrika (Sk) Ceremonies connected with the above worship. Sakti having a two-fold nature, white and black, good and bad, the Saktas are divided into two classes, the Dakshinâchâris and Vâmâchâris, or the right-hand and the left-hand Saktas, i.e., “white” and “black” magicians. The worship of the latter is most licentious and immoral.

 

Tao (Chin.). The name of the philosophy of Lao-tze.

 

Taöer (Eg.). The female Typhon, the hippopotamus, called also Ta-ur, Ta-op-oer, etc. ; she is the Thoueris of the Greeks. This wife of Typhon was represented as a monstrous hippopotamus, sitting on her hind legs with a knife in one hand and the sacred knot in the other the pâsa of Siva). Her back was covered with the scales of a crocodile,

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and she had a crocodile’s tail. She is also called Teb, whence the name of Typhon is also, sometimes, Tebh. On a monument of the sixth dynasty she is called “the nurse of the gods”. She was feared in Egypt even more than Typhon. (See “ Typhon”.)

 

Tao-teh-king (Chin.). Lit., “The Book of the Perfectibility of Nature” written by the great philosopher Lao-tze. It is a kind of cosmogony which contains all the fundamental tenets of Esoteric Cosmo genesis. Thus he says that in the beginning there was naught but limitless and boundless Space. All that lives and is, was born in it, from the “Principle which exists by Itself, developing Itself from Itself”, i.e., Swabhâvat. As its name is unknown and it essence is unfathomable, philosophers have called it Tao (Anima Mundi), the uncreate, unborn and eternal energy of nature, manifesting periodically. Nature as well as man when it reaches purity will reach rest, and then all become one with Tao, which is the source of all bliss and felicity. As in the Hindu and Buddhistic philosophies, such purity and bliss and immortality can only be reached through the exercise of virtue and the perfect quietude of our worldly spirit; the human mind has to control and finally subdue and even crush the turbulent action of man’s physical nature; and the sooner he reaches the required degree of moral purification, the happier he will feel. (See Annales du Musée Guimet, Vols. XI. and XII.; Etudes sur lie Religion des Chinois, by Dr. Groot.) As the famous Sinologist, Pauthier, remarked: “Human Wisdom can never use language more holy and profound ”.

 

Tapas (Sk.). “Abstraction”, “meditation”. “To perform tapas” is to sit for contemplation. Therefore ascetics are often called Tâpasas.

 

Tâpasâ-tarű (Sk.). The Sesamum Orientate, a tree very sacred among the ancient ascetics of China and Tibet.

 

Tapasvî (Sk.). Ascetics and anchorites of every religion, whether Buddhist, Brahman, or Taoist.

 

Taphos (Gr.). Tomb, the sarcophagus placed in the Adytum and used for purposes of initiation.

 

Tapo-loka (Sk.). The domain of the fire-devas named Vairâjas. It is known as the “world of the seven sages ”, and also “the realm of penance ”. One of the Shashta-loka (Six worlds) above our own, which is the seventh.

 

Târâ (Sk.). The wife of Brihaspati (Jupiter), carried away by King Soma, the Moon, an act which led to the war of the Gods with the Asuras. Târâ personifies mystic knowledge as opposed to ritualistic faith. She is the mother (by Soma) of Buddha, “Wisdom ”.

 

Târakâ (Sk) Described as Dânava or Daitya, i.e., a “Giant-

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Demon”, whose superhuman austerities as a yogi made the gods tremble for their power and supremacy. Said to have been killed by Kârttikeya. (See Secret Doctrine, II., 382.)

 

Târakâmaya (Sk.). The first war in Heaven through Târâ.

 

Târakâ Râja Yoga (Sk.). One of the Brahminical Yoga systems for the development of purely spiritual powers and knowledge which lead to Nirvâna.

 

Targum (Chald.). Lit., “Interpretation”, from the root targem to interpret. Paraphrases of Hebrew Scriptures. Some of the Targums are very mystical, the Aramaic (or Targumatic) language being used all through the Zohar and other Kabbalistic works. To distinguish this language from the Hebrew, called the “face ” of the sacred tongue, it is referred to as ahorayim, the “ back part ”, the real meaning of which must be read between the lines, according to certain methods given to students. The Latin word tergum, “back ”, is derived from the Hebrew or rather Aramaic and Chaldean targum. The Book of Daniel begins in Hebrew, and is fully comprehensible till chap. ii., V. 4, when the Chaldees (the Magician-Initiates) begin speaking to the king in Aramaic—not in Syriac, as mistranslated in the Protestant Bible. Daniel speaks in Hebrew before interpreting the king’s dream to him; but explains the dream itself (chap. vii.) in Aramaic. “ So in Ezra iv., v. and vi., the words of the kings being there literally quoted, all matters connected therewith are in Aramaic ”, says Isaac Myer in his Qabbalah. The Targumim are of different ages, the latest already showing signs of the Massoretic or vowel-system, which made them still more full of intentional blinds. The precept of the Pirke Aboth (c. i., i), “ Make a fence to the Thorah ” (law), has indeed been faithfully followed in the Bible as in the Targumim ; and wise is he who would interpret either correctly, unless he is an old Occultist-Kabbalist.

 

Tashilhűmpa (Tib.). The great centre of monasteries and colleges, three hours’ walk from Tchigadze, the residence of the Teshu Lama for details of whom see “Panchen Rimboche”. It was built in 1445 by the order of Tson-kha-pa.

 

Tassissudun (Tib.). Lit., “the holy city of the doctrine” inhabited, nevertheless, by more Dugpas than Saints. It is the residential capital in Bhutan of the ecclesiastical Head of the Bhons—the Dharma Râjâ. The latter, though professedly a Northern Buddhist, is simply a worshipper of the old demon-gods of the aborigines, the nature-sprites or elementals, worshipped in the land before the introduction of Buddhism. All strangers are prevented from penetrating into Eastern or Great Tibet, and the few scholars who venture on their travels into those forbidden regions, are permitted to penetrate no further

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than the border-lands of the land of Bod. They journey about Bhutan, Sikkhim, and elsewhere on the frontiers of the country, but can learn or know nothing of true Tibet; hence, nothing of the true Northern Buddhism or Lamaism of Tsong-kha-pa. And yet, while describing no more than the rites and beliefs of the Bhons and the travelling Shamans, they assure the world they are giving it the pure Northern Buddhism, and comment on its great fall from its pristine purity.

 

Tat (Eg.). An Egyptian symbol: an upright round standard tapering toward the summit, with four cross-pieces placed on the top. It was used as an amulet. The top part is a regular equilateral cross. This, on its phallic basis, represented the two principles of creation, the male and the female, and related to nature and cosmos ; but when the tat stood by itself, crowned with the atf ( or atef ), the triple crown of Horus—two feathers with the urćus in front—it represented the septenary man ; the cross, or the two cross-pieces, standing for the lower quaternary, and the atf  for the higher triad. As Dr. Birch well remarks:
“ The four horizontal bars . . . represent the four foundations of all things, the tat being an emblem of stability”.

 

Tathâgata (Sk.). “One who is like the coming”; he who is, like his predecessors (the Buddhas) and successors, the coming future Buddha or World-Saviour. One of the titles of Gautama Buddha, and the highest epithet, since the first and the last Buddhas were the direct immediate avatars of the One Deity.

 

Tathâgatagupta (Sk.). Secret or concealed Tathâgata, or the “guardian” protecting Buddhas: used of the Nirmânakayas.

 

Tattwa (Sk.). Eternally existing “ That ”; also, the different principles in Nature, in their occult meaning. Tattwa Samâsa is a work of Sânkhya philosophy attributed to Kapila himself.

Also the abstract principles of existence or categories, physical and metaphysical. The subtle elements—five exoterically, seven in esoteric philosophy——which are correlative to the five and the seven senses on the physical plane ; the last two senses are as yet latent in man, but will be developed in the two last root-races.

 

Tau (Heb.). That which has now become the square Hebrew letter tau, but was ages before the invention of the Jewish alphabet, the Egyptian handled cross, the crux ansata of the Latins, and identical with the Egyptian ankh. This mark belonged exclusively, and still belongs, to the Adepts of every country. As Kenneth R. F. Mackenzie shows, “It was a symbol of salvation and consecration, and as such has been adopted as a Masonic symbol in the Royal Arch Degree ”. It is also called the astronomical cross, and was used by the ancient Mexicans—

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as its presence on one of the palaces at Palenque shows—as well as by the Hindus, who placed the tau as a mark on the brows of their Chelas.

 

Taurus (Lat.). A most mysterious constellation of the Zodiac, one connected with all the “First-born” solar gods. Taurus is under the asterisk A, which is its figure in the Hebrew alphabet, that of Aleph; and therefore that constellation is called the “ One ”, the “ First ”, after the said letter. Hence, the “ First-born”
to all of whom it was made sacred. The Bull is the symbol of force and procreative power—the Logos ; hence, also, the horns on the head of Isis, the female aspect of Osiris and Horus. Ancient mystics saw the ansated cross, in the horns of Taurus (the upper portion of the Hebrew Aleph) pushing away the Dragon, and Christians connected the sign and constellation with Christ. St. Augustine calls it “the great City of God ”, and the Egyptians called it the “interpreter of the divine voice ”, the Apis-Pacis of Hermonthis.
(See “ Zodiac ”.)

 

Taygete (Gr.). One of the seven daughters of Atlas third, who became later one of the Pleiades. These seven daughters are said to typify the seven sub-races of the fourth root-race, that of the Atlanteans.

 

[ Sanskrit words commencing with the letters Tch are, owing to faulty transliteration, misplaced, and should come under  C.]

 

Tchaitya (Sk.). Any locality made sacred through some event in the life of Buddha ; a term signifying the same in relation to gods, and any kind of place or object of worship.

 

Tchakchur (Sk.). The first Vidjnâna (q.v.). Lit., “the eye”, meaning the faculty of sight, or rather, an occult perception of spiritual and subjective realities (Chakshur).

 

Tchakra, or Chakra (Sk.). A spell. The disk of Vishnu, which served as a weapon; the wheel of the Zodiac, also the wheel of time, etc. With Vishnu, it was a symbol of divine authority. One of the sixty-five figures of the Sripâda, or the mystic foot-print of Buddha which contains that number of symbolical figures. The Tchakra is used in mesmeric phenomena and other abnormal practices.

 

Tchandâlas, or Chhandâlas (Sk.). Outcasts, or people without caste, a name now given to all the lower classes of the Hindus; but in antiquity it was applied to a certain class of men, who, having forfeited their right to any of the four castes-—Brâhmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sűdras—were expelled from cities and sought refuge in the forests. Then they became “bricklayers ”, until finally expelled they left the country, some 4,000 years before our era. Some see in them the

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ancestors of the earlier Jews, whose tribes began with A-brahm or “ No Brahm ”. To this day it is the class most despised by the Brahmins in India.

 

Tchandragupta, or Chandragupta (Sk.). The son of Nanda, the first Buddhist King of the Morya Dynasty, the grandfather of King Asoka, “the beloved of the gods” (Piyadasi).

 

Tchatur Mahârâja (Sk.). The “four kings ”, Devas, who guard the four quarters of the universe, and are connected with Karma.

 

Tcherno-Bog (Slavon.). Lit., “black god”; the chief deity of the ancient Slavonian nations.

 

Tchertchen. An oasis in Central Asia, situated about 4,000 feet above the river Tchertchen Darya ; the very hot-bed and centre of ancient civilization, surrounded on all sides by numberless ruins, above and below ground, of cities, towns, and burial-places of every description. As the late Colonel Prjevalski reported, the oasis is inhabited by some 3,000 people “representing the relics of about a hundred nations and races now extinct, the very names of which are at present unknown to ethnologists”.

 

Tchhanda Riddhi Pâda (Sk.). “The step of desire”, a term used in Râja Yoga. It is the final renunciation of all desire as a sine quânon condition of phenomenal powers, and entrance on the direct path of Nirvâna.

 

Tchikitsa Vidyâ Shâstra (Sk.). A treatise on occult medicine, which contains a number of
“ magic ” prescriptions. It is one of the Pancha Vidyâ Shâstras or Scriptures.

 

Tchîna (Sk) The name of China in Buddhist works, the land being so called since the Tsin dynasty, which was established in the year 349 before our era.

 

Tchitta Riddhi Pâda (Sk) “ The step of memory.” The third condition of the mystic series which leads to the acquirement of adept-ship ; i.e., the renunciation of physical memory, and of all thoughts connected with worldly or personal events in one’s life—benefits, personal pleasures or associations. physical memory has to be sacrificed, and recalled by will power only when absolutely needed. The Riddhi Pâda, lit., the four “ Steps to Riddhi ”, are the four modes of controlling and finally of annihilating desire, memory, and finally meditation itself— so far as these are connected with any effort of the physical brain— meditation then becomes absolutely spiritual.

 

Tchitta Smriti Upasthâna (Sk.). One of the four aims of Smriti Upasthâna, i.e., the keeping ever in mind the transitory character of man’s life, and the incessant revolution of the wheel of existence.

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Tebah (Heb.). Nature; which mystically and esoterically is the same as its personified Elohim, the numerical value of both words— Tebah and Elohim (or Aleim) being the same, namely 86.

 

Tefnant (Eg.). One of the three deities who inhabit “the land of the rebirth of gods” and good men, i.e., Aamroo (Devâchân) The three deities are Scheo, Tefnant, and Seb.

 

Telugu. One of the Dravidian languages spoken in Southern India.

 

Temura (Heb.). Lit., “Change ”. The title of one division of the practical Kabalah, treating of the analogies between words, the relationship of which is indicated by certain changes in position of the letters, or changes by substituting one letter for another.

 

Ten Pythagorean Virtues. Virtues of Initiation, &c., necessary before admission.
(See “ Pythagoras ”.) They are identical with those prescribed by Manu, and the Buddhist Pâramitâs
of Perfection.

 

Teraphim (Heb.). The same as Seraphim, or the Kabeiri Gods; serpent-images. The first Teraphim, according to legend, were received by Dardanus as a dowry, and brought by him to Samothrace and Troy. The idol-oracles of the ancient Jews. Rebecca stole them from her father Laban.

 

Teratology. A Greek name coined by Geoffroi St. Hilaire to denote the pre-natal formation of monsters, both human and animal.

 

Tetragrammaton. The four-lettered name of God, its Greek title: the four letters are in Hebrew
“ yod, hé vau, hé ” ,or in English capitals, IHVH. The true ancient pronunciation is now unknown; the sincere Hebrew considered this name too sacred for speech, and in reading the sacred writings he substituted the title “ Adonai ”, meaning Lord. In the Kabbalah, I is associated with Chokmah, H with Binah, V with Tiphereth, and H final with Malkuth. Christians in general call IHVH Jehovah, and many modern Biblical scholars write it Yahveh. In the Secret Doctrine, the name Jehovah is assigned to Sephira Binah alone, but this attribution is not recognised by the Rosicrucian school of Kabbalists, nor by Mathers in his translation of Knorr Von Rbsenroth’s Kabbalah Denudata: certain Kabbalistic authorities have referred Binah alone to IHVH, but only in reference to the Jehovah of the exoteric Judaism. The IHVH of the Kabbalah has but a faint resemblance to the God of the Old Testament. [w.w.w.]

The Kabbalah of Knorr von Rosenroth is no authority to the Eastern Kabbalists; because it is well known that in writing his Kabbalah Denudata he followed the modern rather than the ancient (Chaldean) MSS.; and it is equally well known that those MSS. and writings of the Zohar that are classified as “ancient”, mention, and some even use, the Hebrew vowel

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or Massoretic points. This alone would make these would-be Zoharic books spurious, as there are no direct traces of the Massorah scheme before the tenth century of our era, nor any remote trace of it before the seventh. (See “ Tetraktys ”.)

 

Tetraktys (Gr.) or the Tetrad. The sacred “Four” by which the Pythagoreans swore, this being their most binding oath. It has a very mystic and varied signification, being the same as the Tetragrammaton. First of all it is Unity, or the “ One” under four different aspects; then it is the fundamental number Four, the Tetrad containing the Decad, or Ten, the number of perfection; finally it signifies the primeval Triad (or Triangle) merged in the divine Monad. Kircher, the learned Kabbalist. Jesuit, in his Śdipus -Ćgvpticus (II p. 267), gives the Ineffable Name IHVH—one of the Kabbalistic formulć of the 72 names—arranged in the shape of the Pythagorean Tetrad. Mr. I. Myer gives it in this wise:

 

                .                               I                               y     =        10

            .       .                           2          The Ineffable   hy       =        15

        .       .      .                        3          Name thus    w hy        =        21

    .       .       .      .                    4                              hw hy        =        26

                                              1O                                                        72

He also shows that “the sacred Tetrad of the Pythagoreans appears to have been known to the ancient Chinese”. As explained in Isis Unveiled (I, xvi.): The mystic Decad, the resultant of the Tetraktys, or the 1+2+3+4=10, is a way of expressing this idea. The One is the impersonal principle ‘God’; the Two, matter; the Three, combining Monad and Duad and partaking of the nature of both, is the phenomenal world; the Tetrad, or form of perfection, expresses the emptiness of all; and the Decad, or sum of all, involves the entire Kosmos.

 

Thalassa (Gr.). The sea. (See “Thallath”.)

 

Thales (Gr.). The Greek philosopher of Miletus (circa 600 years B.c.) who taught that the whole universe was produced from water, while Heraclitus of Ephesus maintained that it was produced by fire, and Anaximenes by air. Thales, whose real name is unknown, took his name from Thallath, in accordance with the philosophy he taught.

 

Thallath (Chald.). The same as Thalassa. The goddess personifying the sea, identical with Tiamat and connected with Tamti and Belita. The goddess who gave birth to every variety of primordial monster in Berosus’ account of cosmogony.

 

Tharana (Sk.). “Mesmerism”, or rather self.induced trance or self-

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hypnotisation ; an action in India, which is of magical character and a kind of exorcism. Lit., “to brush or sweep away” (evil influences, thârnhan meaning a broom, and thârnhan, a duster); driving away the bad bhűts (bad aura and bad spirits) through the mesmeriser’s beneficent will.

 

Thaumaturgy. Wonder or “miracle-working”; the power of working wonders with the help of gods. From the Greek words thauma, “wonder”, and theurgia, “divine work”.

 

Theanthropism. A state of being both god and man; a divine Avatar (q.v.).

 

Theiohel (Heb.). The man-producing habitable globe, our earth in the Zohar.

 

Theli (Chald.). The great Dragon said to environ the universe symbolically. In Hebrew letters it is
TLI= 400+30+10 = 440 when “its crest [ letter] is repressed”, said the Rabbis, 40 remains, or the equivalent of Mem; M=Water, the waters above the firmament. Evidently the same idea as symbolised by Shesha—the Serpent of Vishnu.

 

Theocrasy. Lit., “mixing of gods”. The worship of various gods, as that of Jehovah and the gods of the Gentiles in the case of the idolatrous Jews.

 

Theodicy. “Divine right”, i.e , the privilege of an all-merciful and just God to afflict the innocent, and damn those predestined, and still remain a loving and just Deity theologically—a mystery.

 

Theodidaktos (Gr.). Lit., “God-taught”. Used of Ammonius Saccas, the founder of the Neo-Platonic Eclectic School of the Philalethć in the fourth century at Alexandria.

 

Theogony. The genesis of the gods; that branch of all non-Christian theologies which teaches the genealogy of the various deities. An ancient Greek name for that which was translated later as the “genealogy of the generation of Adam and the Patriarchs ”—the latter being all “gods and planets and zodiacal signs ”.

 

Theomachy. Fighting with, or against the gods, such, as the “War of the Titans”, the “ War in Heaven” and the Battle of the Archangels (gods) against their brothers the Arch-fiends (ex-gods, Asuras, etc.).

 

Theomancy. Divination through oracles, from theos, a god, and manteia, divination.

 

Theopathy. Suffering for one’s god. Religious fanaticism.

 

Theophilanthropism (Gr.). Love to God and man, or rather, in the philosophical sense, love of God through love of Humanity. Certain persons who during the first revolution in France sought to replace Christianity by pure philanthropy and reason, called themselves theophilanthropists.

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Theophilosophy. Theism and philosophy combined.

 

Theopneusty. Revelation; something given or inspired by a god or divine being. Divine inspiration.

 

Theopśa (Gr.). A magic art of endowing inanimate figures, statues, and other objects, with life, speech, or locomotion.

 

Theosophia (Gr.). Wisdom-religion, or “Divine Wisdom”. The substratum and basis of all the world-religions and philosophies, taught and practised by a few elect ever since man became a thinking being. In its practical bearing, Theosophy is purely divine ethics; the definitions in dictionaries are pure nonsense, based on religious prejudice and ignorance of the true spirit of the early Rosicrucians and medićval philosophers who called themselves Theosophists.

 

Theosophical Society, or “Universal Brotherhood”. Founded in 1875 at New York, by Colonel H. S. Olcott and H. P. Blavatsky, helped by W. Q. Judge and several others. Its avowed object was at first the scientific investigation of psychic or so-called “spiritualistic” phenomena, after which its three chief objects were declared, namely (1) Brotherhood of man, without distinction of race, colour, religion, or social position; (2) the serious study of the ancient world-religions for purposes of comparison and the selection therefrom of universal ethics; (3) the study and development of the latent divine powers in man. At the present moment it has over 250 Branches scattered all over the world, most of which are in India, where also its chief Headquarters are established. It is composed of several large Sections—the Indian, the American, the Australian, and the European Sections.

 

Theosophists. A name by which many mystics at various periods of history have called themselves. The Neo-Platonists of Alexandria were Theosophists; the Alchemists and Kabbalists during the medićval ages were likewise so called, also the Martinists, the Quietists, and other kinds of mystics, whether acting independently or incorporated in a brotherhood or society. All real lovers of divine Wisdom and Truth had, and have, a right to the name, rather than those who, appropriating the qualification, live lives or perform actions opposed to the principles of Theosophy. As described by Brother Kenneth R. Mackenzie, the Theosophists of the past centuries—“ entirely speculative, and founding no schools, have still exercised a silent influence upon philosophy; and, no doubt, when the time arrives, many ideas thus silently propounded may yet give new directions to human thought. One of the ways in which these doctrines have obtained not only authority, but power, has been among certain enthusiasts in the higher degrees of Masonry. This power has, however, to a great degree died with the founders, and modern Freemasonry contains few traces of theosophic

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influence. However accurate and beautiful some of the ideas of Swedenborg, Pernetty, Paschalis, Saint Martin, Marconis, Ragon, and Chastanier may have been, they have but little direct influence on society.” This is true of the Theosophists of the last three centuries, but not of the later ones. For the Theosophists of the current century have already visibly impressed themselves on modern literature, and introduced the desire and craving for some philosophy in place of the blind dogmatic faith of yore, among the most intelligent portions of human-kind. Such is the difference between past and modern THEOSOPHY.

 

Therapeutć (Gr.) or Therapeutes. A school of Esotericists, which was an inner group within Alexandrian Judaism and not, as generally believed, a “sect”. They were “healers” in the sense that some “Christian” and “ Mental” Scientists, members of the T.S., are healers, while they are at the same time good Theosophists and students of the esoteric sciences. Philo Judćus calls them “servants of god”. As justly shown in A Dictionary of . . . Literature, Sects, and Doctrines (Vol. IV., art. “Philo Judmus ”) in mentioning the Therapeutes—“ There appears no reason to think of a special “sect”, but rather of an esoteric circle of illuminati, of ‘wise men’ . . . They were contemplative Hellenistic Jews.”

 

Thermutis (Eg.). The asp-crown of the goddess Isis; also the name of the legendary daughter of Pharaoh who is alleged to have saved Moses from the Nile.

 

Thero (Pali). A priest of Buddha. Therunnanse, also.

 

Theurgia, or Theurgy(Gr.). A communication with, and means of bringing down to earth, planetary spirits and angels—the “gods of Light”. Knowledge of the inner meaning of their hierarchies, and purity of life alone can lead to the acquisition of the powers necessary for communion with them. To; arrive at such an exalted goal the aspirant must be absolutely worthy and unselfish.

 

Theurgist. The first school of practical theurgy (from qeod, god, and ergon work,) in the Christian period, was founded by Iamblichus among certain Alexandrian Platonists. The priests, however, who were attached to the temples of Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia and Greece, and whose business it was to evoke the gods during the celebration of the Mysteries, were known by this name, or its equivalent in other tongues, from the earliest archaic period. Spirits (but not those of the dead, the evocation of which was called Necromancy) were made visible to the eyes of mortals. Thus a theurgist had to be a hierophant and an expert in the esoteric learning of the Sanctuaries of all great countries. The Neo-platonists of the school of Iamblichus were called theurgists, for they performed the so-called “ceremonial magic”, and evoked the simulacra or

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the images of the ancient heroes, “gods”, and daimonia (daimovia, divine, spiritual entities). In the rare cases when the presence of a tangible and visible “ spirit ” was required, the theurgist had to furnish the weird apparition with a portion of his own flesh and blood—he had to perform the thepśa or the “creation of gods”, by a mysterious process well known to the old, and perhaps some of the modern, Tântrikas and initiated Brahmans of India. Such is what is said in the Book of Evocations of the pagodas. It shows the perfect identity of rites and ceremonial between the oldest Brahmanic theurgy and that of the Alexandrian Platonists.

The following is from Isis Unveiled: “The Brahman Grihasta (the evocator) must be in a state of complete purity before he ventures to call forth the Pitris. After having prepared a lamp, some sandal-incense, etc., and having traced the magic circles taught him by the superior Guru, in order to keep away bad spirits, he ceases to breathe, and calls the fire (Kundalini) to his help to disperse his body.” He pronounces a certain number of times the sacred word, and “ his soul (astral body) escapes from its prison, his body disappears, and the soul (image) of the evoked spirit descends into the double body and animates it”. Then “his (the theurgist’s) soul (astral) re-enters its body, whose subtile particles have again been aggregating (to the objective sense), after having formed from themselves an aerial body for the deva (god or spirit) he evoked And then, the operator propounds to the latter questions “on the mysteries of Being and the transformation of the imperishable ”. The popular prevailing idea is that the theurgists, as well as the magicians, worked wonders, such as evoking the souls or shadows of the heroes and gods, and other thaumaturgic works, by super natural powers. But this never was the fact. They did it simply by the liberation of their own astral body, which, taking the form of a god or hero, served as a medium or vehicle through which the special current preserving the ideas and knowledge of that hero or god could be reached and manifested. (See “Iamblichus”.)

 

Thirty-two Ways of Wisdom (Kab.). The Zohar says that Chochmah or Hokhmah (wisdom) generates all things “by means of (these) thirty- two paths”. (Zohar iii., 290a The full account of them is found in the Sepher Yezirah, wherein letters and numbers constitute as entities the Thirty-two Paths of Wisdom, by which the Elohim built the whole Universe. For, as said elsewhere, the brain “hath an outlet from Zeir Anpin, and therefore it is spread and goes out to thirty-two ways”. Zeir Anpin, the “Short Face” or the “Lesser Countenance”, is the Heavenly Adam, Adam Kadmon, or Man. Man in the Zohar is looked upon as the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet to which the decad is added and hence the thirty-two symbols of his faculties or paths.

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Thohu-Bohu (Heb.). From Tohoo—“the Deep” and Bohu “primeval Space”—or the Deep of Primeval Space, loosely rendered as “Chaos” “Confusion” and so on. Also spelt and pronounced “tohu-bohu ”.

 

Thomei (Eg.). The Goddess of Justice, with eyes bandaged and holding a cross. The same as the Greek Themis.

 

Thor (Scand.). From Thonar to “thunder”. The son of Odin and Freya, and the chief of all Elemental Spirits. The god of thunder, Jupiter Tonans. The word Thursday is named after Thor. Among the Romans Thursday was the day of Jupiter, Jovis dies, Jeudi in French— the fifth day of the week, sacred also to the planet Jupiter.

 

Thorah (Heb.). “Law”, written down from the transposition of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Of the “hidden Thorah” it is said that before At-tee-k-ah (the “Ancient of all the Ancients ”) had arranged Itself into limbs (or members) preparing Itself to manifest, It willed to create a Thorah; the latter upon being produced addressed It in these words: “ It, that wishes to arrange and to appoint other things, should first of all, arrange Itself in Its proper Forms”. In other words, Thorah, the Law, snubbed its Creator from the moment of its birth, according to the above, which is an interpolation of some later Talmudist. As it grew and developed, the mystic Law of the primitive Kabbalist was transformed and made by the Rabbins to supersede in its dead letter every metaphysical conception; and thus the Rabbinical and Talmudistic Law makes Ain Soph and every divine Principle subservient to itself, and turns its back upon the true esoteric interpretations.

 

Thor’s Hammer. A weapon which had the form of the Svastika; called by European Mystics and Masons the “ Hermetic Cross”, and also “Jaina Cross ”, croix cramponnée ; the most archaic, as the most sacred and universally respected symbol. (See “ Svastika”.)

 

Thoth (Eg.). The most mysterious and the least understood of gods, whose personal character is entirely distinct from all other ancient deities. While the permutations of Osiris, Isis, Horus, and the rest, are so numberless that their individuality is all but lost, Thoth remains changeless from the first to the last Dynasty. He is the god of wisdom and of authority over all other gods. He is the recorder and the judge. His ibis-head, the pen and tablet of the celestial scribe, who records the thoughts, words and deeds of men and weighs them in the balance, liken him to the type of the esoteric Lipikas. His name is one of the first that appears on the oldest monuments. He is the lunar god of the first dynasties, the master of Cynocephalus—the dog-headed ape who stood in Egypt as a living symbol and remembrance of the Third Root-Race. (Secret Doctrine, II. pp. 184 and 185). He is the “Lord of Hermopolis”

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—Janus, Hermes and Mercury combined. He is crowned with an atef and the lunar disk, and bears the “Eye of Horus ”, the third eye, in his hand. He is the Greek Hermes, the god of learning, and Hermes Trismegistus, the “ Thrice-great Hermes ”, the patron of physical sciences and the patron and very soul of the occult esoteric knowledge. As Mr. J. Bonwick, F.R.G.S., beautifully expresses it : “ Thoth has a powerful effect on the imagination . . . in this intricate yet beautiful phantasmagoria of thought and moral sentiment of that shadowy past. It is in vain we ask ourselves however man, in the infancy of this world of humanity, in the rudeness of supposed incipient civilization, could have dreamed of such a heavenly being as Thoth. The lines are so delicately drawn, so intimately and tastefully interwoven, that we seem to regard a picture designed by the genius of a Milton, and executed with the skill of a Raphael.” Verily, there was some truth in that old saying, “ The wisdom of the Egyptians ”.When it is shown that the wife of Cephren, builder of the second Pyramid, was a priestess of Thoth, one sees that the ideas comprehended in him were fixed 6,000 years ago ”. According to Plato, “Thoth-Hermes was the discoverer and inventor of numbers, geometry, astronomy and letters”. Proclus, the disciple of Plotinus, speaking of this mysterious deity, says: “He presides over every species of condition, leading us to an intelligible essence from this mortal abode, governing the different herds of souls”.

In other words Thoth, as the Registrar and Recorder of Osiris in Amenti, the Judgment Hall of the Dead was a psychopompic deity; while Iamblichus hints that “ the cross with a handle (the thau or tau) which Tot holds in his hand, was none other than the monogram of his name”. Besides the Tau, as the prototype of Mercury, Thoth carries the serpent-rod, emblem of Wisdom, the rod that became the Caduceus. Says Mr. Bonwick, “ Hermes was the serpent itself in a mystical sense. He glides like that creature, noiselessly, without apparent exertion, along the course of ages. He is . . . a representative of the spangled heavens. But he is the foe of the bad serpent, for the ibis devoured the snakes of Egypt.”

 

Thothori Nyan Tsan (Tib.) A King of Tibet in the fourth century. It is narrated that during his reign he was visited by five mysterious strangers, who revealed to him how he might use for his country’s welfare four precious things which had fallen down from heaven, in 331 A.D., in a golden casket and “the use of which no one knew”. These were (1) hands folded as the Buddhist ascetics fold them; (2) a be-jewelled Shorten (a Stupa built over a receptacle for relics); (3) a gem inscribed with the “ Aum mani padme hum” ; and ( the Zamotog, a religious work on ethics, a part of the Kanjur. A voice from heaven then told

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the King that after a certain number of generations everyone would learn how precious these four things were. The number of generations stated carried the world to the seventh century, when Buddhism became the accepted religion of Tibet. Making an allowance for legendary licence, the four things fallen from heaven, the voice, and the five mysterious strangers, may be easily seen to have been historical facts. They were without any doubt five Arhats or Bhikshus from India, on their proselytising tour. Many were the Indian. sages who, persecuted in India for their new faith, betook themselves to Tibet and China.

 

Thrćtaona (Mazd.) The Persian Michael, who contended with Zohak or Azhi-Dahaka, the destroying serpent. In the Avesta Azhi-Dahaka is a three-headed monster, one of whose heads is human, and the two others Ophidian. Dahaka, who is shown in the Zoroastrian Scriptures as coming from Babylonia, stands as the allegorical symbol of the Assyrian dynasty of King Dahaka (Az-Dahaka) which ruled Asia with an iron hand, and whose banners bore the purple sign of the dragon, Purpureum signum draconis. Metaphysically, however, the human head denotes the physical man, and the two serpent heads the dual manasic principles—the dragon and serpent both standing as symbols of wisdom and occult powers.

 

Thread Soul. The same as Sutrâtmâ (q.v.).

 

Three Degrees (of Initiation). Every nation had its exoteric and esoteric religion, the one for the masses, the other for the learned and elect. For example, the Hindus had three degrees with several sub- degrees. The Egyptians had also three preliminary degrees, personified under the “three guardians of the fire ” in the Mysteries. The Chinese had their most ancient Triad Society: and the Tibetans have to this day their “triple step ” ; which was symbolized in the Vedas by the three strides of Vishnu. Everywhere antiquity shows an unbounded reverence for the Triad and Triangle—the first geometrical figure. The old Babylonians had their three stages of initiation into the priesthood (which was then esoteric knowledge); the Jews, the Kabbalists and mystics borrowed them from the Chaldees, and the Christian Church from the Jews. “ There are Two”, says Rabbi Simon ben Jochai, “in conjunction with One; hence they are Three, and if they are Three, then they are One.”

 

Three Faces. The Triműrti of the Indian Pantheon; the three persons of the one godhead. Says the Book of Precepts: “There are two Faces, one in Tushita (Devâchân) and one in Myalba (earth); and the Highest Holy unites them and finally absorbs both.”

 

Three Fires (Occult). The name given to Atmâ-Buddhi-Manas, which when united become one.

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Thsang Thisrong tsan (Tib.). A king who flourished between the years 728 and 787, and who invited from Bengal Pandit Rakshit, called for his great learning Bodhisattva, to come and settle in Tibet, in order to teach Buddhist philosophy to his priests.

 

Thűmi Sambhota (Sk.). An Indian mystic and man of erudition, the inventor of the Tibetan alphabet.

 

Thummim (Heb.). “Perfections.” An ornament on the breastplates of the ancient High Priests of Judaism. Modern Rabbins and Hebraists may well pretend they do not know the joint purposes of the Thummim and the Urim; but the Kabbalists do and likewise the Occultists. They were the instruments of magic divination and oracular communication— theurgic and astrological. This is shown in the following well-known facts —(1) upon each of the twelve precious stones was engraved the name of one of the twelve sons of Jacob, each of these “sons” personating one of the signs of the zodiac; (2) both were oracular images, like the teraphim, and uttered oracles by a voice, and both were agents for hypnotisation and throwing the priests who wore them into an ecstatic condition. The Urim and Thummim were not original with the Hebrews, but had been borrowed, like most of their other religious rites, from the Egyptians, with whom the mystic scarabćus worn on the breast by the Hierophants, had the same functions. They were thus purely heathen and magical modes of divination ; and when the Jewish “Lord God” was called upon to manifest his presence and speak out his will through the Urim by preliminary incantations, the modus operandi was the same as that used by all the Gentile priests the world over.

 

Thumos (Gr.). The astral, animal soul; the Kâmas-Manas; Thumos means passion, desire and confusion and is so used by Homer. The word is probably derived from the Sanskit Tamas, which has the same meaning.

 

Tia-Huanaco (Peruv.). Most magnificent ruins of a pre-historic city in Peru.

 

Tiamat (Chald.). A female dragon personifying the ocean; the “great mother” or the living principle of chaos. Tiamat wanted to swallow Bel, but Bel sent a wind which entered her open mouth and killed Tiamat.

 

Tiaou (Eg.). A kind of Devachanic post mortem state.

 

Tien-Hoang (Chin.). The twelve hierarchies of Dhyânis.

 

Tien-Sin (Chin.). Lit., “the heaven of mind”, or abstract, subjective, ideal heaven. A metaphysical term applied to the Absolute.

 

Tikkun (Chald.). Manifested Man or Adam Kadmon, the first ray from the manifested Logos.

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Tiphereth (Heb.). Beauty; the sixth of the ten Sephiroth, a masculine active potency, corresponding to the Vau, V, of the Tetragrammaton IHVH; also called Melekh or King; and the Son. It is the central Sephira of the six which compose Zauir Anpin, the Microprosopus, or Lesser Countenance. It is translated “ Beauty” and “Mildness”.

 

Tîrthakas, or Tîrthika and Tîrthyas (Sk.). “Heretical teachers.” An epithet applied by the Buddhist ascetics to the Brahmans and certain Yogis of India.

 

Tirthankâra (Sk.). Jaina saints and chiefs, of which there are twenty-four. It is claimed that one of them was the spiritual Guru of Gautama Buddha. Tirthankâra is a synonym of Jaina.

 

Tiryakarota (Sk.). From tiryak “crooked ”, and srotas (digestive) “canal”. The name of the “creation” by Brahmâ of men or beings, whose stomachs were, on account of their erect position as bipeds, in a horizontal position. This is a Purânic invention, absent in Occultism.

 

Tishya (Sk.). The same as Kaliyuga, the Fourth Age.

 

Titans (Gr.). Giants of divine origin in Greek mythology who made war against the gods. Prometheus was one of them.

 

Titikshâ (Sk.). Lit., “long-suffering, patience”. Titikshâ, daughter of Daksha and wife of Dharma (divine law) is its personification.

 

To On (Gr.). The “Being”, the “Ineffable All” of Plato. He“ whom no person has seen except the Son”.

 

Tobo (Gnost.). In the Codex Nazarćus, a mysterious being which bears the soul of Adam from Orcus to the place of life, and thence is called “the liberator of the soul of Adam ”.

 

Todas. A mysterious people of India found in the unexplored fastnesses of Nilgiri (Blue) Hills in the Madras Presidency, whose origin, language and religion are to this day unknown. They are entirely distinct, ethnically, philologically, and in every other way, from the Badagas and the Mulakurumbas, two other races found on the same hills.

 

Toom (Eg.). A god issued from Osiris in his character of the Great Deep Noot. He is the Protean god who generates other gods, “ assuming the form he likes ”. He is Fohat. (Secret Doctrine, I., 673.)

 

Tope. An artificial mound covering relics of Buddha or some other great Arhat. The Topes are also called Dâgobas.

 

Tophet (Heb.). A place in the valley of Gehenna, near Jerusalem, where a constant fire was kept burning, in which children were immolated to Baal. The locality is thus the prototype of the Christian Hell, the fiery Gehenna of endless woe.

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Toralva, Dr. Eugene. A physician who lived in the fourteenth century, and who received as a gift from Friar Pietro, a great magician and a Dominican monk, a demon named Zequiel to be his faithful servant. (See Isis Unveiled, II., 60.)

 

Toyâmbudhi (Sk.). A country in the northern part of which lay the “White Island ”—Shveta Dwîpa of the seven Purânic islands or continents.

 

Trailokya, or Trilokya (Sk.). Lit., the “three regions” or worlds ; the complementary triad to the Brahmanical quaternary of worlds named Bhuvanatraya.A Buddhist profane layman will mention only three divisions of every world, while a non-initiated Brahman will maintain that there are four. The four divisions of the latter are purely physical and sensuous, the Trailokya of the Buddhist are purely spiritual and ethical. The Brahmanical division may be found fully described under the heading of Vyahritis, the difference being for the present sufficiently shown in the following parallel:

Brahmanical Division of the Worlds.      Buddhist Division of the Regions.

1.Bhur, earth.                                           1. World of desire, Kâmadhâtu or
                                                                       Kâmalôka.

2.Bhuvah, heaven, firmament.                2. World of form, Rűpadhâtu.

3. Swar atmosphere the sky.           
4. Mahar, eternal luminous essence.
}    3. The formless world Arűpadhâtu.

 

All these are the worlds of post mortem states. For instance, Kâmalôka or Kâmadhâtu, the region of Mâra, is that which medićval and modern Kabalists call the world of astral light, and the “world of shells Kâmalôka has, like every other region, its seven divisions, the lowest of which begins on earth or invisibly in its atmosphere; the six others ascend gradually, the highest being the abode of those who have died owing to accident, or suicide in a fit of temporary insanity, or were otherwise victims of external forces. It is a place where all those who have died before the end of the term allotted to them, and whose higher principles do not, therefore, go at once into Devachanic state—sleep a dreamless sweet sleep of oblivion, at the termination of which they are either reborn immediately, or pass gradually into the Devachanic state. Rűpadhâtu is the celestial world of form, or what we call Devâchân. With the uninitiated Brahmans, Chinese and other Buddhists, the Rűpadhâtu is divided into eighteen Brahmâ or Devalokas; the life of a soul therein lasts from half a Yuga up to 16,000 Yugas or Kalpas, and the height of the “Shades” is from half a Yojana up to 16,000 Yojanas (a Yojana measuring from five and a half to ten miles !), and such-like theological twaddle evolved from priestly brains. But the Esoteric Philosophy teaches that though for the Egos for the time being, everything or every-

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one preserves its form (as in a dream), yet as Rűpadhâtu is a purely mental region, and a state, the Egos themselves have no form outside their own consciousness. Esotericism divides this “ region” into seven Dhyânas, “regions”, or states of contemplation, which are not localities but mental representations of these. Arűpadhâtu: this “region” is again divided into seven Dhyânas, still more abstract and formless, for this “World” is without any form or desire whatever. It is the highest region of the post mortem Trailokya; and as it is the abode of those who are almost ready for Nirvâna and is, in fact, the very threshold of the Nirvânic state, it stands to reason that in Arűpadhâtu (or Arűpavachara) there can be neither form nor sensation, nor any feeling connected with our three dimensional Universe.

 

Trees of Life. From the highest antiquity trees were connected with the gods and mystical forces in nature. Every nation had its sacred tree, with its peculiar characteristics and attributes based on natural, and also occasionally on occult properties, as expounded in the esoteric teachings. Thus the peepul or Âshvattha of India, the abode of Pitris (elementals in fact) of a lower order, became the Bo-tree or ficus religiosa of the Buddhists the world over, since Gautama Buddha reached the highest knowledge and Nirvâna under such a tree. The ash tree, Yggdrasil, is the world-tree of the Norsemen or Scandinavians. The banyan tree is the symbol of spirit and matter, descending to the earth, striking root, and then
re-ascending heavenward again. The triple-leaved palâsa is a symbol of the triple essence in the Universe—Spirit, Soul, Matter. The dark cypress was the world-tree of Mexico, and is now with the Christians and Mahomedans the emblem of death, of peace and rest. The fir was held sacred in Egypt, and its cone was carried in religious processions, though now it has almost disappeared from the land of the mummies; so also was the sycamore, the tamarisk, the palm and the vine. The sycamore was the Tree of Life in Egypt, and also in Assyria. It was sacred to Hathor at Heliopolis; and is now sacred in the same place to the Virgin Mary. Its juice was precious by virtue of its occult powers, as the Soma is with Brahmans, and Haoma with the Parsis. “ The fruit and sap of the Tree of Life bestow immortality.” A large volume might be written upon these sacred trees of antiquity, the reverence for some of which has survived to this day, without exhausting the subject.

 

Trefoil. Like the Irish shamrock, it has a symbolic meaning, “the three-in-one mystery” as an author calls it. It crowned the head of Osiris, and the wreath fell off when Typhon killed the radiant god. Some see in it a phallic significance, but we deny this idea in Occultism. It was the plant of Spirit, Soul, and Life.

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Tretâ Yuga (Sk.). The second age of the world, a period of 1,296,000 years.

 

Triad, or the Three. The ten Sephiroth are contemplated as a group of three triads: Kether, Chochmah and Binah form the supernal triad; Chesed, Geburah and Tiphereth, the second; and Netzach, Hod and Yesod, the inferior triad. The tenth Sephira, Malkuth, is beyond the three triads. [w.w.w.]

The above is orthodox Western Kabalah. Eastern Occultists recognise but one triad——the upper one (corresponding to Atmâ-Buddhi and the “ Envelope” which reflects their light, the three in one)—and count seven lower Sephiroth, everyone of which stands for a “ principle”, beginning with the Higher Manas and ending with the Physical Body— of which Malkuth is the representative in the Microcosm and the Earth in the Macrocosm.

 

Tri-bhuvana, or Tri-loka (Sk.). The three worlds—Swarga, Bhűmi, Pâtâla, or  Heaven, Earth, and Hell in popular beliefs; esoterically, these are the Spiritual and Psychic (or Astral) regions, and the
Terrestrial sphere.

 

Tridandî (Sk.). The name generally given to a class or sect of Sanyâsis who constantly keep in the hand a kind of club (danda) branching off into three rods at the top. The word is variously etymologized, and some give the name to the triple Brahmanical thread.

 

Tri-dasha (Sk.). Three times ten or “thirty”. This is in round numbers the sum of the Indian Pantheon—the thirty-three crores of deities—the twelve Âdityas, the eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras and the two Ashvins, or thirty-three kotis, or 330 millions of gods.

 

Trigunas (Sk.). The three divisions of the inherent qualities of differentiated matter—i.e., of pure quiescence (satva), of activity and desire (rajas), of stagnation and decay (tamas) They correspond with Vishnu, Brahmâ, and Shiva. (See “ Triműrti ”.)

 

Trijnâna, (Sk.). Lit., “triple knowledge”. This consists of three degrees (1) belief on faith ; (2) belief on theoretical knowledge ; and (3) belief through personal and practical knowledge.

 

Trikâya (Sk) Lit., three bodies, or forms. This is a most abstruse teaching which, however, once understood, explains the mystery of every triad or trinity, and is a true key to every three-fold metaphysical symbol. In its most simple and comprehensive form it is found in the human Entity in its triple division into spirit, soul, and body, and in the universe, regarded pantheistically, as a unity composed of a Deific, purely spiritual Principle, Supernal Beings—its direct rays — and

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Humanity. The origin of this is found in the teachings of the pre historic Wisdom Religion, or Esoteric Philosophy. The grand Pantheistic ideal, of the unknown and unknowable Essence being transformed first into subjective, and then into objective matter, is at the root of all these triads and triplets. Thus we find in philosophical Northern Buddhism (1) Âdi-Buddha (or Primordial Universal Wisdom) ; ( 2) the Dhyâni-Buddhas (or Bodhisattvas); (3) the Mânushi (Human) Buddhas. In European conceptions we find the same: God, Angels and Humanity symbolized theologically by the God-Man. The Brahmanical Triműrti and also the three-fold body of Shiva, in Shaivism, have both been conceived on the same basis, if not altogether running on the lines of Esoteric teachings. Hence, no wonder if one finds this conception of the triple body—or the vestures of Nirmânakâya, Sambhogakâya and Dharmakâya, the grandest of the doctrines of Esoteric Philosophy— accepted in a more or less disfigured form by every religious sect, and explained quite incorrectly by the Orientalists. Thus, in its general application, the three-fold body symbolizes Buddha’s statue, his teachings and his stűpas ; in the priestly conceptions it applies to the Buddhist profession of faith called the Triratna, which is the formula of taking “refuge in Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha”. Popular fancy makes Buddha ubiquitous, placing him thereby on a par with an anthropomorphic god, and lowering him to the level of a tribal deity; and, as a result, it falls into flat contradictions, as in Tibet and China. Thus the exoteric doctrine seems to teach that while in his Nirmâ kâya body (which passed through 100,000 kotis of transformations on earth), he, Buddha, is at the same time a Lochana (a heavenly Dhyâni-Bodhisattva), in his Sambhogakâya “robe of absolute completeness”, and in Dhyâna, or a state which must cut him off from the world and all its connections; and finally and lastly he is, besides being a Nirmânakâya and a Sambhogakâya, also a Dharmakâya “of absolute purity”, a Vairotchana or Dhyâni-Buddha in full Nirvâna! (See Eitel’s Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary.) This is the jumble of contradictions, impossible to reconcile, which is given out by missionaries and certain Orientalists as the philosophical dogmas of Northern Buddhism. If not an intentional confusion of a philosophy dreaded by the upholders of a religion based on inextricable contradictions and guarded
“mysteries”, then it is the product of ignorance. As the Trailokya, the Trikâya, and the Triratna are the three aspects of the same conceptions, and have to be, so to say, blended in one, the subject is further explained under each of these terms. (See also in this relation the term “ Trisharana”.)

 

Tri-kűta (Sk.). Lit., “three peaks”. The mountain on which Lanka (modern Ceylon) and its city were built. It is said, allegorically,

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to be a mountain range running south from Meru. And so no doubt it was before Lankâ was submerged, leaving now but the highest summits of that range out of the waters. Submarine topography and geological formation must have considerably changed since the Miocene period. There is a legend to the effect that Vâyu, the god of the wind, broke the summit off Meru and cast it into the sea, where it forthwith became Lankâ.

 

Trilcohana (Sk.). Lit., “three-eyed ”, an epithet of Shiva. It is narrated that while the god was engaged one day on a Himalayan summit in rigid austerities, his wife placed her hand lovingly on his third eye, which burst from Shiva’s forehead with a great flame. This is the eye which reduced Kâma, the god of love (as Mârâ, the tempter), to ashes, for trying to inspire him during his devotional meditation with thoughts of his wife.

 

Triműrti (Sk). Lit., “three faces”, or “triple form”—the Trinity. In the modern Pantheon these three persons are Brahmâ, the creator, Vishnu, the preserver, and Shiva, the destroyer. But this is an after thought, as in the Vedas neither Brahmâ nor Shiva is known, and the Vedic trinity consists of Agni, Vâyu and Sűrya; or as the Nirukta explains it, the terrestrial fire, the atmospheric (or aërial) and the heavenly fire, since Agni is the god of fire, Vâyu of the air, and Sűrya is the sun. As the Padma Purâna has it: “In the beginning, the great Vishnu, desirous of creating the whole world, became threefold: creator, preserver, destroyer. In order to produce this world, the Supreme Spirit emanated from the right side of his body, himself, as Brahmâ then, in order to preserve the universe, he produced from the left side of his body Vishnu; and in order to destroy the world he produced from the middle of his body the eternal Shiva. Some worship Brahmâ, some Vishnu, others Shiva; but Vishnu, one yet threefold, creates, preserves, and destroys, therefore let the pious make no difference between the three.” The fact is, that all the three “persons” of the Triműrti are simply the three qualificative gunas or attributes of the universe of differentiated Spirit-Matter, self-formative, self-preserving and self-destroying, for purposes of regeneration and perfectibility. This is the correct meaning; and it is shown in Brahmâ being made the personified embodiment of Rajoguna, the attribute or quality of activity, of desire for procreation, that desire owing to which the universe and everything in it is called into being. Vishnu is the embodied Sattvaguna, that property of preservation arising from quietude and restful enjoyment, which characterizes the intermediate period between the full growth and the beginning of decay; while Shiva, being embodied Tamoguna—which

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is the attribute of stagnancy and final decay—becomes of course the destroyer. This is as highly philosophical under its mask of anthropomorphism, as it is unphilosophical and absurd to hold to and enforce on the world the dead letter of the original conception.

 

Trinity. Everyone knows the Christian dogma of the “three in one” and “one in three ”; therefore it is useless to repeat that which may he found in every catechism. Athanasius, the Church Father who defined the Trinity as a dogma, had little necessity of drawing upon inspiration or his own brain power; he had but to turn to one of the innumerable trinities of the heathen creeds, or to the Egyptian priests, in whose country he had lived all his life. He modified slightly only one of the three “ persons ”. All the triads of the Gentiles were composed of the Father, Mother, and the Son. By making it “Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ”, he changed the dogma only outwardly, as the Holy Ghost had always been feminine, and Jesus is made to address the Holy Ghost as his “mother” in every Gnostic Gospel.

 

Tripada (Sk.). “Three-footed ”, fever, personified as having three feet or stages of development—cold, heat and sweat.

 

Tripitaka (Sk.). Lit., “the three baskets”; the name of the Buddhist canon. It is composed of three divisions : (1) the doctrine; (2) the rules and laws for the priesthood and ascetics; (3) the philosophical dissertations and metaphysics: to wit, the Abhidharma, defined by Buddhaghosa as that law (dharma) which goes beyond (abhi) the law. The Abhidharma contains the most profoundly metaphysical and philosophical teachings, and is the store-house whence the Mahâyâna and Hînayâna Schools got their fundamental doctrines. There is a fourth division—the Samyakta Pitaka. But as it is a later addition by the Chinese Buddhists, it is not accepted by the Southern Church of Siam and Ceylon.

 

Triratna, or Ratnatraya (Sk) The Three Jewels, the technical term for the well-known formula “Buddha, Dharma and Sangha” (or Samgha), the two latter terms meaning, in modern interpretation, “religious law” (Dharma), and the “priesthood” (Sangha). Esoteric Philosophy, however, would regard this as a very loose rendering. The words “Buddha, Dharma and Sangha”, ought to be pronounced as in the days of Gautama, the Lord Buddha, namely “Bodhi, Dharma and Sangha and interpreted to mean
“Wisdom, its laws and priests ”, the latter in the sense of “ spiritual exponents ”, or adepts. Buddha, however, being regarded as personified “ Bodhi” on earth, a true avatar of Âdi-Buddha, Dharma gradually came to be regarded as his own particular law, and Sangha as his own special priesthood. Nevertheless,

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it is the profane of the later (now modern) teachings who have shown a greater degree of natural intuition than the actual interpreters of Dharma, the Buddhist priests. The people see the Triratna in the three statues of Amitâbha, Avalokiteshvara and Maitreya Buddha; i.e., in Boundless Light” or Universal Wisdom, an impersonal principle which is the correct meaning of Âdi-Buddha; in the “Supreme Lord” of the Bodhisattvas, or Avalokiteshvara; and in Maitreya Buddha, the symbol of the terrestrial and human Buddha, the “Mânushi Buddha ”. Thus, even though the uninitiated do call these three statues “the Buddhas of the Past, the Present and the Future ”, still every follower of true philosophical Buddhism—called “atheistical” by Mr. Eitel— would explain the term Triratna correctly. The philosopher of the Yogachârya School would say—as well he could—“Dharma is not a person but an unconditioned and underived entity, combining in itself the spiritual and material principles of the universe, whilst from Dharma proceeded, by emanation, Buddha [ Bodhi rather], as the creative energy which produced, in conjunction with Dharma, the third factor in the trinity, viz., ‘Samgha’, which is the comprehensive sum total of all real life.” Samgha, then, is not and cannot be that which it is now understood to be, namely, the actual “ priesthood”; for the latter is not the sum total of all real life, but only of religious life. The real primitive significance of the word Samgha or “Sangha” applies to the Arhats or Bhikshus, or the “initiates”, alone, that is to say to the real exponents of Dharma—the divine law and wisdom, coming to them as a reflex light from the one “boundless light ”. Such is its philosophical meaning. And yet, far from satisfying the scholars of the Western races, this seems only to irritate them; for E. J. Eitel, of Hongkong, remarks, as to the above : “ Thus the dogma of a Triratna, originating from three primitive articles of faith, and at one time culminating in the conception of three persons, a trinity in unity, has degenerated into a metaphysical theory of the evolution of three abstract principles ”! And if one of the ablest European scholars will sacrifice every philosophical ideal to gross anthropomorphism, then what can Buddhism with its subtle metaphysics expect at the hands of ignorant missionaries?

 

Trisharana (Sk.). The same as” Triratna ”and accepted by both the Northern and Southern Churches of Buddhism. After the death of the Buddha it was adopted by the councils as a mere kind of formula fidei, enjoining “to take refuge in Buddha ”, “to take refuge in Dharma ”, and “to take refuge in Sangha ”, or his Church, in the sense in which it is now interpreted; but it is not in this sense that the “Light of Asia” would have taught the formula. Of  Trikâya, Mr. E. J. Eitel, of Hongkong, tells us in his Handbook of Chinese Buddhism that this “tricho-

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tomism was taught with regard to the nature of all Buddhas. Bodhi being the characteristic of a Buddha” —a distinction was made between “essential Bodhi” as the attribute of the Dharmakâya, i.e., “essential body”; “reflected Bodhi” as the attribute of Sambhogakâya; and “practical Bodhi” as the attribute of Nirmânakâya.  Buddha combining in himself these three conditions of existence, was said to be living at the same time in three different spheres. Now, this shows how greatly misunderstood is the purely pantheistical and philosophical teaching. Without stopping to enquire how even a Dharmakâya vesture can have any “attribute” in Nirvâna, which state is shown, in philosophical Brahmanism as much as in Buddhism, to be absolutely devoid of any attribute as conceived by human finite thought—it will be sufficient to point to the following —(1) the Nirmânakâya vesture is preferred by the “Buddhas of Compassion” to that of the Dharmakâya state, precisely because the latter precludes him who attains it from any communication or relation with the finite, i.e., with humanity; (2) it is not Buddha (Gautama, the mortal man, or any other personal Buddha) who lives ubiquitously in “three different spheres, at the same time ”, but Bodhi, the universal and abstract principle of divine wisdom, symbolised in philosophy by Âdi-Buddha. It is the latter that is ubiquitous because it is the universal essence or principle. It is Bodhi, or the spirit of Buddhaship, which, having resolved itself into its primordial homogeneous essence and merged into it, as Brahmâ (the universe) merges into Parabrahm, the ABSOLUTENESS—that is meant under the name of “essential Bodhi ”. For the Nirvânee, or Dhyâni Buddha, must be supposed—by living in Arűpadhâtu, the formless state, and in Dharmakâya—to be that “ essential Bodhi” itself. It is the Dhyâni Bodhisattvas, the primordial rays of the universal Bodhi, who live in “reflected Bodhi” in Râpadhâtu, or the world of subjective “forms” ; and it is the Nirmânakâyas (plural) who upon ceasing their lives of “ practical Bodhi”, in the “enlightened” or Buddha forms, remain voluntarily in the Kâmadhâtu (the world of desire), whether in objective forms on earth or in subjective states in its sphere (the second Buddhakshetra). This they do in order to watch over, protect and help mankind. Thus, it is neither one Buddha who is meant, nor any particular avatar of the collective Dhyâni Buddhas, but verily Âdi-Bodhi—the first Logos, whose primordial ray is Mahâbuddhi, the Universal Soul, ALAYA, whose flame is ubiquitous, and whose influence has a different sphere in each of the three forms of existence, because, once again, it is Universal Being itself or the reflex of the Absolute. Hence, if it is philosophical to speak of Bodhi, which “as Dhyâni Buddha rules in the domain of the spiritual” (fourth Buddhakshetra or region of Buddha); and of the

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Dhyâni Bodhisattvas “ruling in the third Buddhakshetra ”or the domain of ideation; and even of the Mânushi Buddhas, who are in the second Buddhakshetra as Nirmanakâyas—to apply the “idea of a unity in trinity” to three personalities—is highly unphilosophical.

 

Trishnâ (Sk.). The fourth Nidâna; spiritual love.

 

Trishűla (Sk.). The trident of Shiva.

 

Trisuparna (Sk.). A certain portion of the Veda, after thoroughly studying which a Brâhman is also called a Trisuparna.

 

Trithemius. An abbot of the Spanheim Benedictines, a very learned Kabbalist and adept in the Secret Sciences, the friend and instructor of Cornelius Agrippa.

 

Triton (Gr.). The san of Poseidon and Amphitrite, whose body from the waist upwards was that of a man and whose lower limbs were those of a dolphin. Triton belongs in esoteric interpretation to the group of fish symbols—such as Oannes (Dagon), the Matsya or Fish-avatar, and the Pisces, as adopted in the Christian symbolism. The dolphin is a constellation called by the Greeks Capricornus, and the latter is the Indian Makâra. It has thus an anagrammatical significance, and its interpretation is entirely occult and mystical, and is known only to the advanced students of Esoteric Philosophy. Suffice to say that it is as physiological as it is spiritual and mystical. (See Secret Doctrine II., pp. 578 and 579.)

 

Trividha Dvâra (Sk.). Lit., the “three gates”, which are body, mouth, and mind; or purity of body, purity of speech, purity of thought— the three virtues requisite for becoming a Buddha.

 

Trividyâ (Sk.). Lit., “the three knowledges” or sciences”. These are the three fundamental axioms in mysticism —(a) the impermanency of all existence, or Anitya; (b) suffering and misery of all that lives and is, or Dukha; and (c) all physical, objective existence as evanescent and unreal as a water-bubble in a dream, or Anâtmâ.

 

Trivikrama (Sk.).An epithet of Vishnu used in the Rig Veda in relation to the “three steps of Vishnu”. The first step he took on earth, in the form of Agni; the second in the atmosphere, in the form of Vâyu, god of the air; and the third in the sky, in the shape of Sűrya, the sun.

 

Triyâna (Sk.). “The three vehicles” across Sansâra—the ocean of births, deaths, and rebirths—are the vehicles called Sravaka, Pratyeka Buddha and Bodhisattva, or the three degrees of Yogaship. The term Triyâna is also used to denote the three schools of mysticism—the Mahâyâna, Madhyimâyâna and Hînayâna schools; of which the first is the “Greater”, the second the “ Middle”, and the last the “Lesser” Vehicle. All and every system between the Greater and the Lesser Vehicles are considered “useless”. Therefore the Pratyeka

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Buddha is made to correspond with the Madhyimâyâna. For, as explained, “this (the Pratyeka Buddha state) refers to him who lives all for himself and very little for others, occupying the middle of the vehicle, filling it all and leaving no room for others ”. Such is the selfish candidate for Nirvâna.

 

Tsanagi-Tsanami (Jap.). A kind of creative god in Japan.

 

Tsien-Sin (Chin.). The “Heaven of Mind”, Universal Ideation and Mahat, when applied to the plane of differentiation “ Tien-Sin” (q.v.) when referring to the Absolute.

 

Tsien-Tchan (Ch.). The universe of form and matter.

 

Tsi-tsai (Chin.). The “Self-Existent” or the “Unknown Darkness”, the root of Wuliang Sheu, “Boundless Age”, all Kabbalistic terms, which were used in China ages before the Hebrew Kabbalists adopted them, borrowing them from Chaldea and Egypt.

 

Tubal-Cain (Heb.). The Biblical Kabir, “an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron”, the son of Zillah and Lamech; one with the Greek Hephćstos or Vulcan. His brother Jabal, the son of Adah and the co-uterine brother of Jabal, one the father of those “who handle the harp and organ ”, and the other the father “of such as have cattle”, are also Kabiri: for, as shown by Strabo, it is the Kabiri (or Cyclopes in one sense) who made the harp for Kronos and the trident for Poseidon, while some of their other brothers were instructors in agriculture. Tubal-Cain (or Thubal-Cain) is a word used in the Master-Mason’s degree in the ritual and ceremonies of the Freemasons.

 

Tullia (Lat.). A daughter of Cicero, in whose tomb, as claimed by several alchemists, was found burning a perpetual lamp, placed there more than a thousand years previously.

 

Tum, or Toόm The “Brothers of the Tum”, a very ancient school of Initiation in Northern India in the days of Buddhist persecution. The “Turn B’hai” have now become the “Aum B’hai”, spelt, however, differently at present, both schools having merged into one. The first was composed of Kshatriyas, the second of Brahmans. The word “Tum” has a double meaning, that of darkness (absolute darkness), which as absolute is higher than the highest and purest of lights, and a sense resting on the mystical greeting among Initiates, “ Thou art thou, thyself ”, equivalent to saying “Thou art one with the Infinite and the All”.

 

Turîya (Sk.). A state of the deepest trance—the fourth state of the Târaka Râja Yoga, one that corresponds with Âtmâ, and on this earth with dreamless sleep—a causal condition.

 

Turîya Avasthâ (Sk.). Almost a Nirvânic state in Samâdhi, which

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is itself a beatific state of the contemplative Yoga beyond this plane. A condition of the higher Triad, quite distinct (though still inseparable) from the conditions of Jagrat (waking), Svapna (dreaming), and Sushupti (sleeping).

 

Tushita (Sk.). A class of gods of great purity in the Hindu Pantheon. In exoteric or popular Northern Buddhism, it is a Deva-loka, a celestial region on the material plane, where all the Bodhisattvas are reborn, before they descend on this earth as future Buddhas.

 

Tyndarus (Gr.). King of Lacedćmon the fabled husband of Leda, the mother of Castor and Pollux and of Helen of Troy.

 

Typhćus (Gr.). A famous giant, who had a hundred heads like those of a serpent or dragon, and who was the reputed father of the Winds, as Siva was that of the Maruts—also “winds ”. He made war against the gods, and is identical with the Egyptian Typhon.

 

Typhon (Eg.). An aspect or shadow of Osiris. Typhon is not, as Plutarch asserts, the distinct “ Evil Principle ” or the Satan of the Jews; but rather the lower cosmic “principles ” of the divine body of Osiris, the god in them—Osiris being the personified universe as an ideation, and Typhon as that same universe in its material realization. The two in one are Vishnu-Siva. The true meaning of the Egyptian myth is that Typhon is the terrestrial and material envelope of Osiris, who is the indwelling spirit thereof. In chapter 42 of the Ritual (“ Book of the Dead”), Typhon is described as “Set, formerly called Thoth”. Orientalists find themselves greatly perplexed by discovering Set-Typhon addressed in some papyri as “a great and good god ”, and in others as the embodiment of evil. But is not Siva, one of the Hindu Triműrti, described in some places as “the best and most bountiful of gods ”, and at other times, “a dark, black, destroying, terrible ” and “ fierce god”? Did not Loki, the Scandinavian Typhon, after having been described in earlier times as a beneficent being, as the god of fire, the presiding genius of the peaceful domestic hearth, suddenly lose caste and become forthwith a power of evil, a cold-hell Satan and a demon of the worst kind? There is a good reason for such an invariable transformation. So long as these dual gods, symbols of good and necessary evil, of light and darkness, keep closely allied, i.e., stand for a combination of differentiated human qualities, or of the element they represent—they are simply an embodiment of the average personal god. No sooner, however, are they separated into two entities, each with its two characteristics, than they become respectively the two opposite poles of good and evil, of light and darkness ; they become in short, two independent and distinct entities or rather personalities. It is only by dint of sophistry that the Churches have succeeded to this day in preserving in the minds of the

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few the Jewish deity in his primeval integrity. Had they been logical they would have separated Christ from Jehovah, light and goodness from darkness and badness. And this was what happened to Osiris Typhon ;but no Orientalist has understood it, and thus their perplexity goes on increasing. Once accepted—as in the case of the Occultists— as an integral part of Osiris, just as Ahriman is an inseparable part of Ahura Mazda, and the Serpent of Genesis the dark aspect of the Elohim, blended into our “Lord God ”—every difficulty in the nature of Typhon disappears. Typhon is a later name of Set, later but ancient—as early in fact as the fourth Dynasty; for in the Ritual one reads: “ 0 Typhon-Set ! I invoke thee, terrible, invisible, all-powerful god of gods, thou who destroyest and renderest desert ”. Typhon belongs most decidedly to the same symbolical category as Siva the Destroyer, and Saturn—the “dark god ”. In the Book of the Dead, Set, in his battle with Thoth (wisdom)_who is his spiritual counterpart — is emasculated as Saturn-Kronos was and Ouranos before him. As Siva is closely connected with the bull Nandi—an aspect of Brahmâ-Vishnu, the creative and preserving powers—so is Set-Typhon allied with the bull Apis, both bulls being sacred to, and allied with, their respective deities. As Typhon was originally worshipped as an upright stone, the phallus, so is Siva to this day represented and worshipped as a lingham. Siva is Saturn. Indeed, Typhon-Set seems to have served as a prototype for more than one god of the later ritualistic cycle, including even the god of the Jews, some of his ritualistic observances having passed bodily into the code of laws and the canon of religious rites of the “chosen people”. Who of the Bible-worshippers knows the origin of the scape-goat (ez or aza) sent into the wilderness as an atonement ? Do they know that ages before the exodus of Moses the goat was sacred to Typhon, and that it is over the head of that Typhonic goat that the Egyptians confessed their sins, after which the animal was turned into the desert? “And Aaron shall take the scapegoat (Azâzel) and lay his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel . . . and shall send him away . . . into the wilderness” (Levit., xvi.). And as the goat of the Egyptians made an atonement with Typhon, so the goat of the Israelites “made an atonement before the Lord” (Ibid., v. 10). Thus, if one only remembers that every anthropomorphic creative god was with the philosophical ancients the “Life-giver” and the “Death-dealer ”—Osiris and Typhon, Ahura Mazda and Ahriman, etc., etc.—it will be easy for him to comprehend the assertion made by the Occultists, that Typhon was but a symbol for the lower quaternary, the ever conflicting and turbulent principles of

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differentiated chaotic matter, whether in the Universe or in Man, while Osiris symbolized the higher spiritual triad. Typhon is accused in the Ritual of being one who “steals reason from the soul ”. Hence, he is shown fighting with Osiris and cutting him into fourteen (twice seven) pieces, after which, left without his counterbalancing power of good and light, he remains steeped in evil and darkness. In this way the fable told by Plutarch becomes comprehensible as an allegory. He asserts that, overcome in his fight with Horus, Typhon “fled seven days on an ass, and escaping begat the boys Ierosolumos and Ioudaios ”. Now as Typhon was worshipped at a later period under the form of an ass, and as the name of the ass is AO, or (phonetically) IAO, the vowels mimicking the braying of the animal, it becomes evident that Typhon was purposely blended with the name of the Jewish God, as the two names of Judea and Jerusalem, begotten by Typhon—sufficiently imply.

 

Twashtri (Sk.). The same as Vishwakarman, “the divine artist ”, the carpenter and weapon-maker of the gods. (See “Vishwakarman”.)

 

Tzaila (Heb.). A rib; see Genesis for the myth of the creation of the first woman from a rib of Adam, the first man. It is curious that no other myth describes anything like this “rib” process, except the Hebrew Bible. Other similar Hebrew words are” Tzela, a “fall”, and Tzelem, “the image of God”. Inman remarks that the ancient Jews were fond of punning conceits, and sees one here—that Adam fell, on account of a woman, whom God made in his image, from a fall in the man’s side. [w.w.w.]

 

Tzelem (Heb.). An image, a shadow. The shadow of the physical body of a man, also the astral body—Linga Sharira. (See “ Tzool-mah”.)

 

Tzim-tzum (Kab.). Expansion and contraction, or, as some Kabbalists explain it—“the centrifugal and centripetal energy”.

 

Tziruph (Heb)A set of combinations and permutations of the Hebrew letters designed to shew analogies and preserve secrets. For example, in the form called Atbash, A and T were substitutes, B and Sh, G and R, etc.
[w.w.w.]

 

Tzool-mah (Kab.). Lit., “shadow”. It is stated in the Zohar (I., 218 a, i. fol. 117 a, col. 466.), that during the last seven nights of a mans life, the Neshczmah, his spirit, leaves him and the shadow,
tzool-mah, acts no longer, his body casting no shadow; and when the tzool-mah disappears entirely, then Ruach and Nephesh—the soul and life—go with it. It has been often urged that in Kabbalistic philosophy there were but three, and, with the Body, Guff, four “principles”. It can be easily shown there are seven, and several subdivisions more, for there are the “upper” and the “lower ” Neshamah (the dual Manas); Ruach, Spirit or

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Buddhi; Nephesh (Kâma) which “has no light from her own substance”, but is associated with the Guff, Body; Tzelem, “Phantom of the Image” and D’yooknah, Shadow of the Phantom Image, or Mâyâvi Rűpa. Then come the Zurath, Prototypes, and Tab-nooth, Form; and finally, Tzurah, ‘ highest Principle (Âtman) which remains above”, etc., etc. (See Myer’s Qabbalah, pp. 400 et. seq.)

 

Tzuphon (Heb.). A name for Boreas, the Northern Wind, which some of the old Israelites deified and worshipped.

 

Tzurah (Heb.). The divine prototype in the Kabbalah. In Occultism it embraces Âtmâ-Buddhi-Manas, the Highest Triad; the eternal divine Individual. The plural is tzurath.

 

Tzure (Heb.). Almost the same as the above: the prototype of the “Image” tzelem ; a Kabbalistic term used in reference to the so-called creation of the divine and the human Adam, of which the Kabala (or Kabbalah) has four types, agreeing with the root-races of men. The Jewish Occultists knew of no Adam and, refusing to recognise in the first human race Humanity with Its Adam, spoke only of “primordial sparks”.

 

                                

U  

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U .—The twenty-first letter of the Latin alphabet, which has no equivalent in Hebrew. As a number, however, it is considered very mystical both by the Pythagoreans and the Kabbalists, as it is the product of 3 x 7. The latter consider it the most sacred of the odd numbers, as 21 is the sum of the numerical value of the Divine Name aeie, or eiea, or again aheihe—thus (read backward, aheihe)

                                                          he i he a

                                                          5+1O+5+1=21

In Alchemy it symbolizes the twenty-one days necessary for the transmutation of baser metals into silver.

 

Uasar (Eg.). The same as Osiris, the latter name being Greek. Uasar is described as the “Egg-born ”, like Brahmâ. “He is the egg-sprung Eros of Aristophanes, whose creative energy brings all things into existence ; the demiurge who made and animates the world, a being who is a sort of personification of Amen, the invisible god, as Dionysos is a link between mankind and the Zeus Hypsistos” (The Great Dionysiak Myth, Brown). Isis is called Uasi, as she is the Sakti of Osiris, his female aspect, both symbolizing the creating, energising, vital forces of nature in its aspect of male and female deity.

 

Uchchaih-Sravas (Sk.). The model-horse; one of the fourteen precious things or Jewels produced at the Churning of the Ocean by the gods. The white horse of Indra, called the Râjâ of horses.

 

Uchnîcha, also Buddhôchnîcha (Sk.). Explained as “a protuberance on Buddha’s cranium, forming a hair-tuft ”. This curious description is given by the Orientalists, varied by another which states that Uchnîcha was “originally a conical or flame-shaped hair tuft on the crown of a Buddha, in later ages represented as a fleshy excrescence on the skull itself ”. This ought to read quite the reverse; for esoteric philosophy would say: Originally an orb with the third eye in it, which degenerated later in the human race into a fleshy protuberance, to disappear gradually, leaving in its place but an occasional flame- coloured aura, perceived only through clairvoyance, and when the exuberance of spiritual energy causes the (now concealed) “third eye to radiate its superfluous magnetic power. At this period of our racial development, it is of course the “Buddhas” or Initiates alone who enjoy in full the faculty of the “third eye” , as it is more or less atrophied in everyone else.

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Udâna (Sk) Extemporaneous speeches; also Sűtras. In philosophy the term applies to the physical organs of speech, such as tongue, mouth, voice, etc. In sacred literature in general, it is the name of those Sűtras which contain extemporaneous discourses, in distinction to the Sűtras that contain only that subject matter which is introduced by questions put to Gautama the Buddha and his replies.

 

Udayana (Sk.). Modern Peshawer. “ The classic land of sorcery” according to Hiouen-Thsang.

 

Udayana Râjâ (Sk.). A king of Kausâmbî, called Vatsarâjâ, who was the first to have a statue of Buddha made before his death; in consequence of which, say the Roman Catholics, who build statues of Madonnas and Saints at every street corner—he “became the originator of Buddhist IDOLATRY”.

 

Udra Ramaputra (Sk.). Udra, the son of Râma. A Brahman ascetic, who was for some years the Guru of Gautama Buddha.

 

Udumbara (Sk.). A lotus of gigantic size, sacred to Buddha: the Nila Udumbara or “blue lotus”, regarded as a supernatural omen when ever it blossoms, for it flowers but once every three thousand years. One such, it is said, burst forth before the birth of Gautama, another, near a lake at the foot of the Himalayas, in the fourteenth century, just before the birth of Tsong-kha-pa, etc., etc. The same is said of the Udumbara tree (ficus glomerata) because it flowers at intervals of long centuries, as does also a kind of cactus, which blossoms only at extra ordinary altitudes and opens at midnight.

 

Ullambana (Sk.). The festival of “all souls”, the prototype of All Souls’ Day in Christian lands. It is held in China on the seventh moon annually, when both “ Buddhist and Tauist priests read masses, to release the souls of those who died on land or sea from purgatory, scatter rice to feed Prętas [ classes of demons ever hungry and thirsty] , consecrate domestic ancestral shrines, . . . . recite Tantras . . . accompanied by magic finger-play (műdra) to comfort the ancestral spirits of seven generations in Nâraka” (a kind of purgatory or Kama Loka) The author of the Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary thinks that this is the old Tibetan (Bhon) “ Gtorma ritual engrafted upon Confucian ancestral worship,” owing to Dhamaraksha translating the Ullambana Sűtra and introducing it into China. The said Sűtra is certainly a forgery, as it gives these rites on the authority of Sâkyamuni Buddha, and “ supports it by the alleged experiences of his principal disciples, Ânanda being said to have appeased Prętas by food offerings ”. But as correctly stated by Mr. Eitel, “the whole theory, with the ideas of intercessory prayers, priestly litanies and requiems, and ancestral worship, is

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entirely foreign to ancient and Southern Buddhism ”. And to the Northern too, if we except the sects of Bhootan and Sikkim, of the Bhon or Dugpa persuasion—the red caps, in short. As the ceremonies of All Saints’ Day, or days, are known to have been introduced into China in the third century (265-292), and as the same Roman Catholic ceremonial and ritual for the dead, held on November 2nd, did not exist in those early days of Christianity, it cannot be the Chinese who borrowed this religious custom from the Latins, but rather the latter who imitated the Mongolians and Chinese.

 

Uller (Scand.). The god of archery, who “journeys over the silvery ice-ways on skates”. He is the patron of the chase during that period when the Sun passes over the constellation of Sagittarius; and lives in the “ Home of the Light-Elves” which is in the Sun and outside of Asgard.

 

Ulom (Pśnic.) The intelligible deity. The objective or material Universe, in the theogony of Mochus. The reflection of the ever-concealed deity; the Plerôma of the Gnostics.

 

Ulphilas (Scand.). A schoolman who made a new alphabet for the Goths in the fourth century—a union of Greek letters with the form of the runic alphabet, since which time the runes began to die out and their secret was gradually lost. (See “ Runes”.) He translated the Bible into Gothic, preserved in the Codex Argenteus.

 

Ulűpî (Sk.). A daughter of Kauravya, King of the Nâgas in Pâtâla (the nether world, or more correctly, the Antipodes, America). Exoterically, she was the daughter of a king or chief of an aboriginal tribe of the Nâgas, or Nagals (ancient adepts) in pre-historic America—Mexico most likely, or Uruguay. She was married to Arjuna, the disciple of Krishna, whom every tradition, oral and written, shows travelling five thousand years ago to Pâtâla (the Antipodes). The Purânic tale is based on a historical fact. Moreover, Ulűpi, as a name, has a Mexican ring in it, like “ Atlan ”, “ Aclo ”, etc.

 

Umâ-Kanyâ (Sk.). Lit., “Virgin of Light”; a title ill-befitting its possessor, as it was that of Durgâ Kâli, the goddess or female aspect of Siva. Human flesh was offered to her every autumn; and, as Durgâ, she was the patroness of the once murderous Thugs of India, and the special goddess of Tântrika sorcery. But in days of old it was not as it is now. The earliest mention of the title “Umâ-Kanyâ is found in the Kena-Upanishad; in it the now blood-thirsty Kâlî, was a benevolent goddess, a being of light and goodness, who brings about reconciliation between Brahmâ and the gods. She is Saraswati and she is Vâch. In esoteric symbology, Kâlî is the dual type of the dual soul—the divine and the human, the light and the dark soul of man,

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Umbra (Lat.). The shadow of an earth-bound spook. The ancient Latin races divided man (in esoteric teachings) into seven principles, as did every old system, and as Theosophists do now. They believed that after death Anima, the pure divine soul, ascended to heaven, a place of bliss; Manes (the Kâma Rűpa) descended into Hades (Kâma Loka); and Umbra (or astral double, the Linga Sharîra) remained on earth hovering about its tomb, because the attraction of physical, objective matter and affinity to its earthly body kept it within the places which that body had impressed with its emanations. Therefore, they said that nothing but the astral image of the defunct could be seen on earth, and even that faded out with the disintegration of the last particle of the body which had been so long its dwelling.

 

Una (Sk.). Something underlying; subordinate; secondary also, and material.

 

Undines (Lat.). Water nymphs and spooks. One of the four principal kinds of elemental spirits, ‘which are Salamanders (fire), Sylphs (air), Gnomes (earth), and Undines (water).

 

Upâdâna (Sk.). Material Cause; as flax is the cause of linen.

 

Upâdâna Kâranam (Sk.). The material cause of an effect.

 

Upâdhi (Sk.). Basis; the vehicle, carrier or bearer of something less material than itself: as the human body is the upâdhi of its spirit, ether the upâdhi of light, etc., etc.; a mould; a defining or limiting substance.

 

Upadvîpas (Sk.). The root (underlying) of islands; dry land.

 

Upanishad (Sk.). Translated as “esoteric doctrine ”, or interpretation of the Vedas by the Vedânta methods. The third division of the Vedas appended to the Brâhmanas and regarded as a portion of Sruti or “revealed” word. They are, however, as records, far older than the Brâhmanas the exception of the two, still extant, attached to the Rig -Veda of the Aitareyins. The term Upanishad is explained by the Hindu pundits as “that which destroys ignorance, and thus produces liberation” of the spirit, through the knowledge of the supreme though hidden truth; the same, therefore, as that which was hinted at by Jesus, when he is made to say, “And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free ” (John viii. 32). It is from these treatises of the Upanishads—themselves the echo of the primeval Wisdom-Religion―that the Vedânta system of philosophy has been developed. (See “Vedânta”.) Yet old as the Upanishads may be, the Orientalists will not assign to the oldest of them more than an antiquity of 600 years B.C. The accepted number of these treatises is 150, though now no more than about twenty are left unadulterated. They treat of very abstruse, metaphysical questions, such as the origin of the Universe; the nature and the

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essence of the Unmanifested Deity and the manifested gods the connection, primal and ultimate, of spirit and matter ; the universality of mind and the nature of the human Soul and Ego.

The Upanishads must be far more ancient than the days of Buddhism, as they show no preference for, nor do they uphold, the superiority of the Brahmans as a caste. On the contrary, it is the (now) second caste, the Kshatriya, or warrior class, who are exalted in the oldest of them. As stated by Professor Cowell in Elphinstone’s History of India——“they breathe a freedom of spirit unknown to any earlier work except the Rig Veda. . . The great teachers of the higher knowledge and Brahmans are continually represented as going to Kshatriya Kings to become their pupils.” The “ Kshatriya Kings” were in the olden times, like the King Hierophants of Egypt, the receptacles of the highest divine knowledge and wisdom, the Elect and the incarnations of the primordial divine Instructors—the Dhyâni Buddhas or Kumâras. There was a time, ćons before the Brahmans became a caste, or even the Upanishads were written, when there was on earth but one “lip ”, one religion and one science, namely, the speech of the gods, the Wisdom-Religion and Truth.  This was before the fair fields of the latter, overrun by nations of many languages, became overgrown with the weeds of intentional deception, and national creeds invented by ambition, cruelty and selfishness, broke the one sacred Truth into thousands of fragments.

 

Upanita.(Sk.). One who is invested with the Brahmanical thread; lit., “brought to a spiritual teacher or Guru”.

 

Uparati (Sk) Absence of outgoing desires; a Yoga state.

 

Upâsaka (Sk.). Male chelas or rather devotees. Those who without entering the priesthood vow to preserve the principal commandments.

 

Upâsikâ (Sk.). Female chelas or devotees.

 

Upasruti (Sk.). According to Orientahists a “supernatural voice which is heard at night revealing the secrets of the future ”. According to the explanation of Occultism, the voice of any person at a distance—— generally one versed in the mysteries of esoteric teachings or an adept—— endowed with the gift of projecting both his voice and astral image to any person whatsoever, regardless of distance. The upasruti may “reveal the secrets of the future ”, or may only inform the person it addresses of some prosaic fact of the present; yet it will still be an upasruti—the “double” or the echo of the voice of a living man or woman.

 

Upekshâ (Sk.). Lit., Renunciation. In Yoga a state of absolute indifference attained by self-control, the complete mastery over one’s mental and physical feelings and sensations.

 

Ur (Chald.). The chief seat of lunar worship; the Babylonian city where

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the moon was the chief deity, and whence Abram brought the Jewish god, who is so inextricably connected with the moon as a creative and generative deity.

 

Urćus (Gr.). In Egyptian Urhek, a serpent and a sacred symbol. Some see in it a cobra, while others say it is an asp. Cooper explains that “the asp is not a urćus but a cerastes, or kind of viper, i.e., a two- horned viper. It is the royal serpent, wearing the pschent . . . the naya hâje.” The urćus is “round the disk of Horus and forms the ornament of the cap of Osiris, besides overhanging the brows of other divinities” (Bonwick). Occultism explains that the urćus is the symbol of initiation and also of hidden wisdom, as the serpent always is. The gods were all patrons of the hierophants and their instructors.

 

Uragas (Sk.). The Nâgas (serpents) dwelling in Pâtâla the nether world or hell, in popular thought ; the Adepts, High Priests and Initiates of Central and South America, known to the ancient Aryans; where Arjuna wedded the daughter of the king of the Nâgas—Ulűpî. Nagalism or Nâga-worship prevails to this day in Cuba and Hayti, and Voodooism, the chief branch of the former, has found its way into New Orleans. In Mexico the chief “sorcerers ”, the “ medicine men ”, are called Nagals to this day; just as thousands of years ago the Chaldean and Assyrian High Priests were called Nargals, they being chiefs of the Magi (Rab.Mag), the office held at one time by the prophet Daniel. The word Nâga, “ wise serpent ”, has become universal, because it is one of the few words that have survived the wreck of the first universal language. In South as well as in Central and North America, the aborigines use the word, from Behring Straits down to Uruguay, where it means a “chief”, a “teacher and a “ serpent ”. The very word Uraga may have reached India and been adopted through its connection, in prehistoric times, with South America and Uruguay itself, for the name belongs to the American Indian vernacular. The origin of the Uragas, for all that the Orientalists know, may have been in Uruguai, as there are legends about them which locate their ancestors the Nâgas in Pâtâla, the antipodes, or America.

 

Uranides (Gr.). One of the names of the divine Titans, those who rebelled against Kronos, the prototypes of the Christian “fallen” angels.

 

Urim (Heb.). See“ Thummim”. The“ Urim and Thummim ”originated in Egypt, and symbolized the Two Truths, the two figures of Ra and Thmei being engraved on the breastplate of the Hierophant and worn by him during the initiation ceremonies. Diodorus adds that this necklace of gold and precious stones was worn by the High

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Priest when delivering judgment. Thme (plural Thmin) means “ Truth” in Hebrew. “ The Septuagint translates thummim, as Truth ” (Bonwick). The late Mr. Proctor, the astronomer, shows the Jewish idea “derived directly from the Egyptians”. But Philo Judćus affirms that Urim and Thummim were “the two small images of Revelation and Truth, put between the double folds of the breastplate ”, and passes over the latter, with its twelve stones typifying the twelve signs of the Zodiac, without explanation.

 

Urlak (Scand.). The same as “Orlog” (q.v.). Fate; an impersonal power bestowing gifts “blindly” on mortals; a kind of Nemesis.

 

Urvasî(Sk.). A divine nymph, mentioned in the Rig-Veda, whose beauty set the whole heaven ablaze. Cursed by the gods she descended to earth and settled there. The loves of Purűravas (the Vikrama), and the nymph Urvasî are the subject of Kâlidâsa's world-famous drama, the Vikramorvasî.

 

Usanas (Sk.). The planet Venus or Sukra; or rather the ruler and governor of that planet.

 

Ushas (Sk.). The dawn, the daughter of heaven; the same as the Aurora of the Latins and the hjwvd of the Greeks. She is first mentioned in the Vedas, wherein her name is also Ahanâ and Dyotanâ (the illuminator), and is a most poetical and fascinating image. She is the ever-faithful friend of men, of rich and poor, though she is believed to prefer the latter. She smiles upon and visits the dwelling of every living mortal. She is the immortal, ever-youthful virgin, the light of the poor, and the destroyer of darkness.

 

Uttara Mîmânsâ (Sk.). The second of the two Mîmânsâs—the first being Pűrva (first) Mîmânsâ, which form respectively the fifth and sixth of the Darshanas or schools of philosophy. The Mîmânsâ are included in the generic name of Vedânta, though it is the Uttara (by Vyâsa) which is really the Vedânta.

 

Uzza (Heb.). The name of an angel who, together with Azrael, opposed, as the Zohar teaches, the creation of man by the Elohim, for which the latter annihilated both.

 

               

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V.—The twenty-second letter of the Latin alphabet. Numerically it stands for 5; hence the Roman V (with a dash) stands for 5,000. The Western Kabbalists have connected it with the divine Hebrew name IHVH. The Hebrew Vau, however, being number 6, it is only by being identical with the W, that it can ever become a proper symbol for the male-female, and spirit-matter. The equivalent for the Hebrew Vau is YO, and in numerals 6.

 

Vâch (Sk.). To call Vâch “speech” simply, is deficient in clearness. Vâch is the mystic personification of speech, and the female Logos, being one with Brahmâ, who created her out of one-half of his body, which he divided into two portions; she is also one with Virâj (called the “female” Virâj) who was created in her by Brahmâ. In one sense Vâch is “speech” by which knowledge was taught to man; in another she is the
“mystic, secret speech” which descends upon and enters into the primeval Rishis, as the “tongues of fire” are said to have “sat upon” the apostles. For, she is called “the female creator ”, the “mother of the Vedas ”, etc., etc. Esoterically, she is the subjective Creative Force which, emanating from the Creative Deity (the subjective Universe, its “privation ”, or ideation) becomes the manifested “world of speech ”, i.e., the concrete expression of ideation, hence the “Word” or Logos. Vâch is “the male and female” Adam of the first chapter of Genesis, and thus called “Vâch-Virâj” by the sages. (See Atharva Veda.) She is also “the celestial Saraswatî produced from the heavens ”, a “voice derived from speechless Brahmâ” (Mahâbhârata); the goddess of wisdom and eloquence. She is called Sata-rűpa, the goddess of a hundred forms.

 

Vacuum (Lat.). The symbol of the absolute Deity or Boundless Space, esoterically.

 

Vâhana (Sk.). A vehicle, the carrier of something immaterial and formless. All the gods and goddesses are, therefore, represented as using vâhanas to manifest themselves, which vehicles are ever symbolical. So, for instance, Vishnu has during Pralayas, Ânanta the infinite” (Space), symbolized by the serpent Sesha, and during the Manvantaras—Garuda the gigantic half-eagle, half-man, the symbol of the great cycle; Brahma appears as Brahmâ, descending into the planes of manifestations on Kâlahamsa, the “swan in time or finite eternity”; Siva (phonet, Shiva) appears as the bull Nandi; Osiris as the sacred bull Apis; Indra

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travels on an elephant; Kârttikeya, on a peacock; Kâmadeva on Makâra, at other times a parrot; Agni, the universal (and also solar) Fire-god, who is, as all of them are, “a consuming Fire”, manifests itself as a ram and a lamb, Ajâ, “the unborn”; Varuna, as a fish; etc., etc., while the vehicle of MAN is his body.

 

Vaibhâchikas (Sk.). The followers of the Vibhâcha Shâstra, an ancient school of materialism ; a philosophy that held that no mental concept can be formed except through direct contact between the mind, via the senses, such as sight, touch, taste, etc., and external objects. There are Vaibhâchikas, to this day, in India.

 

Vaidhâtra (Sk.). The same as the Kumâras.

 

 

Vaidyuta (Sk.). Electric fire, the same as Pâvaka, one of the three fires which, divided, produce
forty-nine mystic fires.

 

Vaihara (Sk.). The name of a cave-temple near Râjagriha, whereinto the Lord Buddha usually retired for meditation.

 

Vaijayantî (Sk.). The magic necklace of Vishnu, imitated by certain Initiates among the temple Brahmans. It is made of five precious stones, each symbolizing one of the five elements of our Round; namely, the pearl, ruby, emerald, sapphire and diamond, or water, fire, earth, air and ether, called “the aggregate of the five elemental rudiments”— the word “powers” being, perhaps, more correct than “rudiments ”.

 

Vaikhari Vâch (Sk.). ‘That which is uttered; one of the four forms of speech.

 

Vaikuntha (Sk.). One of the names of the twelve great gods, whence Vaikunthaloka, the abode of Vishnu.

 

Vairâjas (Sk.). In the popular belief, semi-divine beings, shades of saints, inconsumable by fire, impervious to water, who dwell in Tapo loka with the hope of being translated into Satya-loka—a more purified state which answers to Nirvâna. The term is explained as the aerial bodies or astral shades of “ascetics, mendicants, anchorites, and penitents, who have completed their course of rigorous austerities”. Now in esoteric philosophy they are called Nirmânakâyas, Tapo-loka being on the sixth plane (upward) but in direct communication with the mental plane. The Vairâjas are referred to as the first gods because the Mânasa putras and the Kumâras are the oldest in theogony, as it is said that even the gods worshipped them (Matsya Purâna); those whom Brahmâ “with the eye of Yoga beheld in the eternal spheres, and who are the gods of gods” (Vâyu Purâna).

 

Vairochana (Sk.). “All-enlightening”. A mystic symbol, or rather a generic personification of a class of spiritual beings described as the embodiment of essential wisdom (bodhi) and absolute purity.

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They dwell in the fourth Arűpa Dhâtu (formless world) or Buddhakshetra, and are the first or the highest hierarchy of the five orthodox Dhyâni Buddhas. There was a Sramana (an Arhat) of this name (see Eitel’s Sansk. Chin. Dict.) a native of Kashmir, “who introduced Buddhism into Kustan and lahoured in Tibet” (in the seventh century of our era). He was the best translator of the semi-esoteric Canon of Northern
Buddhism, and a contemporary of the great Samantabhadra (q.v.).

 

Vaisâkha (Sk.). A celebrated female ascetic, born at Srâvastî, and called Sudatta, “virtuous donor”. She was the mother-abbess of a Vihâra, or convent of female Upâsikâs, and is known as the builder of a Vihâra for Sâkyamuni Buddha. She is regarded as the patroness of all the Buddhist female ascetics.

 

Vaisheshika (Sk.). One of the six Darshanas or schools of philosophy, founded by Kanâda. It is called the Atomistic School, as it teaches the existence of a universe of atoms of a transient character, an endless number of souls and a fixed number of material principles, by the correlation and interaction of which periodical cosmic evolutions take place without any directing Force, save a kind of mechanical law inherent in the atoms; a very materialistic school.

 

Vaishnava (Sk.). A follower of any sect recognising and worshipping Vishnu as the one supreme God. The worshippers of Siva are called Saivas.

 

Vaivaswata (Sk.). The name of the Seventh Manu, the forefather of the post-diluvian race, or our own fifth humankind. A reputed son of Sűrya (the Sun), he became, after having been saved in an ark (built by the order of Vishnu) from the Deluge, the father of Ikshwâku, the founder of the solar race of kings.
(See “Sűryavansa”.)

 

Vajra (Sk.). Lit., “diamond club” or sceptre. In the Hindu works, the sceptre of Indra, similar to the thunderbolts of Zeus, with which this deity, as the god of thunder, slays his enemies. But in mystical Buddhism, the magic sceptre of Priest-Initiates, exorcists and adepts—the symbol of the possession of Siddhis or superhuman powers, wielded during certain ceremonies by the priests and theurgists. It is also the symbol of Buddha’s power over evil spirits or elementals. The possessors of this wand are called Vajrapâni (q.v.).

 

Vajrâchârya (Sk.). The spiritual achârya (guru, teacher) of the Yogâchâryas, The “Supreme Master of the Vajra”.

 

Vajradhara (Sk.). The Supreme Buddha with the Northern Buddhists.

 

Vajrapâni (Sk.), or Manjushrî, the Dhyâni-Bodhisattva (as the spiritual reflex, or the son of the Dhyâni.Buddhas, on earth) born directly from the subjective form of existence; a deity worshipped by the profane

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as a god, and by Initiates as a subjective Force, the real nature of which is known only to, and explained by, the highest Initiates of the Yogâchârya School.

 

Vajrasattva (Sk.). The name of the sixth Dhyani-Buddha (of whom there are but five in the popular Northern Buddhism)—in the Yogâchârya school, the latter counting seven Dhyâni-Buddhas and as many Bodhisattvas—the “mind-sons” of the former. Hence, the Orientalists refer to Vajrasattva as “a fictitious Bodhisattva”.

 

Vallabâchârya (Sk.). The name of a mystic who was the chela (disciple) of Vishnu Swâmi, and the founder of a sect of Vaishnavas. His descendants are called Goswâmi Mahârâj, and have much landed property and numerous mandirs (temples) in Bombay. They have degenerated into a shamefully licentious sect.

 

Vâmana (Sk.). The fifth avatar of Vishnu, hence the name of the Dwarf whose form was assumed by that god.

 

Vara (Mazd.). A term used in the Vendîdâd, where Ahura-mazda commands Yima to build Vara. It also signifies an enclosure or vehicle, an ark (argha), and at the same time MAN (verse 30). Vara is the vehicle of our informing Egos, i.e. the human body, the soul in which is typified by the expression a “window self-shining within”.

 

Varâha (Sk.). The boar-avatar of Vishnu; the third in number.

 

Varna (Sk.). Caste; lit., “colour”. The four chief castes named by Manu—the Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Sűdra—are called Chatur-varna.

 

Varsha (Sk.). A region, a plain; any stretch of country situated between the great mountain-ranges of the earth.

 

Varuna (Sk). The god of water, or marine god, but far different from Neptune, for in the case of this oldest of the Vedic deities, Water means the “ Waters of Space”, or the all-investing sky, Akâsa, in one sense. Varuna or Ooaroona (phonetically), is certainly the prototype of the Ouranos of the Greeks. As Muir says : “ The grandest cosmical functions are ascribed to Varuna. Possessed of illimitable knowledge he upholds heaven and earth, he dwells in all worlds as sovereign ruler. . . He made the golden . . . sun to shine in the firmament. The wind which resounds through the atmosphere is his breath. . . . Through the operation of his laws the moon walks in brightness and the stars . . . mysteriously vanish in daylight. He knows the flight of birds in the sky, the paths of ships on the ocean, the course of the far travelling wind, and beholds all the things that have been or shall be done. . . . He witnesses men’s truth and false hood. He instructs the Rishi Vasishta in mysteries ; but his secrets and

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those of Mitra are not to be revealed to the foolish.” . . “ The attributes and functions ascribed to Varuna impart to his character a moral elevation and sanctity far surpassing that attributed to any other Vedic deity.”

 

Vasishta (Sk.). One of the primitive seven great Rishis, and a most celebrated Vedic sage.

 

Vasudeva (Sk.). The father of Krishna. He belonged to the Yâdava branch of the Somavansa, or lunar race.

 

Vasus (Sk.). The eight evil deities attendant upon Indra. Personified cosmic phenomena, as their names show.

 

Vâyu (Sk.). Air: the god and sovereign of the air; one of the five states of matter, namely the gaseous; one of the five elements, called, as wind, Vâta. The Vishnu Purâna makes Vâyu King of the Gandharvas. He is the father of Hanumân, in the Râmâyana. The trinity of the mystic gods in Kosmos closely related to each other, are “ Agni (fire) whose place is on earth; Vâyu (air, or one of the forms of Indra), whose place is in the air ; and Sűrya (the sun) whose place is in the air (Nirukta.) In esoteric interpretation, these three cosmic principles, correspond with the three human principles, Kâma, Kâma-Manas and Manas, the sun of the intellect.

 

Vedanâ (Sk.). The second of the five Shandhas (perceptions, senses). The sixth Nidâna.

 

Vedânta (Sk.). A mystic system of philosophy which has developed from the efforts of generations of sages to interpret the secret meaning of the Upanishads (q.v.). It is called in the Shad-Darshanas (six schools or systems of demonstration), Uttara Mîmânsâ, attributed to Vyâsa, the compiler of the Vedas, who is thus referred to as the founder of the Vedânta. The orthodox Hindus call Vedânta_a term meaning literally the “end of all (Vedic) knowledge ”—Brahmâ-jnâna, or pure and spiritual knowledge of Brahmâ. Even if we accept the late dates assigned to various Sanskrit schools and treatises by our Orientalists, the Vedânta must be 3,300 years old, as Vyâsa is said to have lived I,400 years B.C. If, as Elphinstone has it in his History of India, the Brahmanas are the Talmud of the Hindus, and the Vedas the Mosaic books, then the Vedânta may be correctly called the Kabalah of India. But how vastly more grand! Sankarâchârya, who was the popularizer of the Vedântic system, and the founder of the Adwaita philosophy, is sometimes called the founder of the modern schools of the Vedânta.

 

Vedas (Sk.). The “revelation”. the scriptures of the Hindus, from the root vid, “to know ”, or “divine knowledge”. They are the most ancient as well as the most sacred of the Sanskrit works. The Vedas

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on the date and antiquity of which no two Orientalists can agree, are claimed by the Hindus themselves, whose Brahmans and Pundits ought to know best about their own religious works, to have been first taught orally for thousands of years and then compiled on the shores of Lake Mânasa-Sarovara (phonetically, Mansarovara) beyond the Himalayas, in Tibet. When was this done? While their religious teachers, such as Swami Dayanand Saraswati, claim for them an antiquity of many decades of ages, our modern Orientalists will grant them no greater antiquity in their present form than about between 1,000 and 2,000 B.C. As compiled in their final form by Veda-Vyâsa, however, the Brahmans themselves unanimously assign 3,100 years before the Christian era, the date when Vyâsa flourished. Therefore the Vedas must be as old as this date. But their antiquity is sufficiently proven by the fact that they are written in such an ancient form, of Sanskrit, so different from the Sanskrit now used, that there is no other, work like them in the literature of this eldest sister of all the known languages, as Prof. Max Muller calls it. Only the most learned of the Brahman Pundits can read the Vedas in their original. It is urged that Colebrooke found the date 1400 B.c. corroborated absolutely by a passage which he discovered, and which is based on astronomical data. But if, as shown unanimously by all the Orientalists and the Hindu Pundits also, that (a) the Vedas are not a single work, nor yet any one of the separate Vedas; but that each Veda, and almost every hymn and division of the latter, is the production of various authors; and that (b) these have been written (whether as sruti, “revelation ”, or not) at various periods of the ethnological evolution of the Indo-Aryan race, then—what does Mr. Colebrooke’s discovery prove? Simply that the Vedas were finally arranged and compiled fourteen centuries before our era; but this interferes in no way with their antiquity. Quite the reverse; for, as an offset to Mr. Colebrooke’s passage, there is a learned article, written on purely astronomical data by Krishna Shâstri Godbole (of Bombay), which proves as absolutely and on the same evidence that the Vedas must have been taught at least 25,000 years ago. (See Theosophist, Vol. II., p. 238 et seq., Aug., 1881.) This statement is, if not supported, at any rate not contradicted by what Prof. Cowell says in Appendix VII., of Elphinstone’ History of India: “ There is a difference in age between the various hymns, which are now united in their present form as the Sanhitâ of the Rig Veda; but we have no data to determine their relative antiquity, and purely subjective criticism, apart from solid data, has so often failed in other instances, that we can trust but little to any of its inferences in such a recently opened field of research as Sanskrit literature. [ a fourth part of the Vaidik literature is as yet in print, and very little of it has

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been translated into English (1866).] The still unsettled controversies about the Homeric poems may well warn us of being too confident in our judgments regarding the yet earlier hymns of the Rig -Veda. . . . When we examine these hymns . . . they are deeply interesting for the history of the human mind, belonging as they do to a much older phase than the poems of Homer or Hesiod.” The Vedic writings are all classified in two great divisions, exoteric and esoteric, the former being called Karma-Kânda, “division of actions or works ”, and the Jnâna Kânda, “division of (divine) knowledge”, the Upanishads (q.v.) coming under this last classification. Both departments are regarded as Sruti or revelation. To each hymn of the Rig -Veda, the name of the Seer or Rishi to whom it was revealed is prefixed. It, thus, becomes evident on the authority of these very names (such as Vasishta, Viswâmitra, Nârada, etc.), all of which belong to men born in various manvantaras and even ages, that centuries, and perhaps millenniums, must have elapsed between the dates of their composition.

 

Veda-Vyâsa (Sk.). The compiler of the Vedas (q.v.).

 

Veddhas (Sing.). The name of a wild race of men living in the forests of Ceylon. They are very difficult to find.

 

Vehicle of Life (Mystic). The “Septeriary” Man among the Pythagoreans, “number seven” among the profane. The former “explained it by saying, that the human body consisted of four principal elements (principles), and that the soul is triple (the higher triad)” . (See Isis Unveiled, Vol. II., p. 418, New York, 1877.) It has been often remarked that in the earlier works of the Theosophists no septenary division of man was mentioned. The above quotation is sufficient warrant that, although with every caution, the subject was more than once approached, and is not a new-fangled theory or invention.

 

Vendîdâd (Pahlavi). The first book (Nosk) in the collection of Zend fragments usually known as the Zend-Avesta. The Vendidâd is a corruption of the compound-word “Vidaęvo-dâtern”, meaning “the anti- demoniac law ”, and is full of teachings how to avoid sin and defilement by purification, moral and physical—each of which teachings is based on Occult laws. It is a pre-eminently occult treatise, full of symbolism and often of meaning quite the reverse of that which is expressed in its dead-letter text. The Vendîdâd, as claimed by tradition, is the only one of the twenty-one Nosks (works) that has escaped the auto-da-fé at the hands of the drunken Iskander the Rűmi, he whom posterity calls Alexander the Great— though the epithet is justifiable only when applied to the brutality, vices and cruelty of this conqueror. It is through the vandalism of this Greek that literature and knowledge have lost much priceless lore in the Nosks burnt by him. Even the Vendidâd has

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reached us in only a fragmentary state. The first chapters are very mystical, and therefore called “mythical” in the renderings of European Orientalists. The two “creators” of “spirit-matter” or the world of differentiation—Ahura- Mazda and Angra-Mainyu (Ahriman)—are introduced in them, and also Yima (the first man, or mankind personified). The work is divided into Fargards or chapters, and a portion of these is devoted to the formation of our globe, or terrestrial evolution. (See Zend-Avesta.)

 

Vetâla (Sk.). An elemental, a spook, which haunts burial grounds and animates corpses.

 

Vetâla Siddhi (Sk.). A practice of sorcery; means of obtaining power over the living by black magic, incantations, and ceremonies performed over a dead human body, during which process the corpse is desecrated. (See “Vetâla ”.)

 

Vibhâvasu (Sk.). A mystic fire connected with the beginning of pralaya, or the dissolution of the universe.

 

Vibhűtayah (Sk.). The same as Siddhis or magic powers.

 

Vidyâ (Sk.). Knowledge, Occult Science.

 

Vidyâ-dhara (Sk.). And Vidyâ-dharî, male and female deities. Lit., “possessors of knowledge”. They are also called Nabhas-chara, “moving in the air”, flying, and Priyam-vada, “sweet-spoken ”. They are the Sylphs of the Rosicrucians; inferior deities inhabiting the astral sphere between the earth and ether; believed in popular folk-lore to be beneficent, but in reality they are cunning and mischievous, and intelligent Elementals, or “Powers of the air ”. They are represented in the East, and in the West, as having intercourse with men (“ intermarrying ”, as it is called in Rosicrucian parlance; see Count de Gabalis). In India they are also called Kâma-rűpins, as they take shapes at will. It is among these creatures that the “spirit-wives” and “ spirit-husbands” of certain modern spiritualistic mediums and hysteriacs are recruited. These boast with pride of having such pernicious connexions (e.g., the American “Lily ”, the spirit-wife of a well-known head of a now scattered community of Spiritualists, of a great poet and well-known writer), and call them angel-guides, maintaining that they are the spirits of famous
disembodied mortals. These “ spirit-husbands” and “wives” have not originated with the modern Spiritists and Spiritualists, but have been known in the East for thousands of years, in the Occult philosophy, under the names above given, and among the profane as—Pishâthas.

 

Vihâra (Sk.). Any place inhabited by Buddhist priests or ascetics; a Buddhist temple, generally a rock-temple or cave. A monastery, or a nunnery also. One finds in these days Vihâras built in the

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enclosures of monasteries and academies for Buddhist training in towns and cities; but in days of yore they were to be met with only in unfrequented wild jungles, on mountain tops, and in the most deserted places.

 

Vihâraswâmin (Sk.). The superior (whether male or female) of a monastery or convent, Vihâra. Also called Karmadâna, as every teacher or guru, having authority, takes upon himself the responsibility of certain actions, good or bad, committed by his pupils or the flock entrusted to him.

 

Vijnânam (Sk.). The Vedântic name for the principle which dwells in the Vijnânamaya Kosha (the sheath of intellect) and corresponds to the faculties of the Higher Manas.

 

Vikârttana (Sk.). Lit., “shorn of his rags”; a name of the Sun, and the type of the initiated neophyte. (See Secret Doctrine, I., p. 322, n.)

 

Vimoksha (Sk.). The same as Nirvâna.

 

Vînâ (Sk.). A kind of large guitar used in India and Tibet, whose invention is attributed variously to Siva, Nârada, and others.

 

Vinatâ (Sk.). A daughter of Daksha and wife of Kashyapa (one of the “seven orators” of the world). She brought forth the egg from which Garuda the seer was born.

 

Viprachitti (Sk.). The chief of the Dânavas—the giants that warred with the gods: the Titans of India.

 

Vîrabhadra (Sk.). A thousand-headed and thousand-armed monster, “born of the breath” of Siva Rudra, a symbol having reference to the “sweat-born ”, the second race of mankind
(Secret Doctrine, II., p. 182).

 

Virâj (Sk.). The Hindu Logos in the Purânas; the male Manu, created in the female portion of Brahmâ’s body (Vâch) by that god. Says Manu: “ Having divided his body into two parts, the lord (Brahmâ) became with the one half a male and with the other half a female; and in her he created Virâj”. The Rig -Veda makes Virâj spring from Purusha, and Purusha spring from Virâj. The latter is the type of all male beings, and Vâch, Sata-rűpa (she of the hundred forms), the type of all female forms.

 

Vishnu (Sk.). The second person of the Hindu Triműrti (trinity), composed of Brahmâ, Vishnu and Siva. From the root vish, “to pervade”. in the Rig -Veda, Vishnu is no high god, but simply a manifestation of the solar energy, described as “striding through the seven regions of the Universe in three steps and enveloping all things with the dust (of his beams ”.) Whatever may be the six other occult significances of the statement, this is related to the same class of types as the seven and ten Sephiroth, as the seven and three orifices of the perfect Adam Kadmon, as the seven “principles” and the higher triad in man, etc., etc. Later

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on this mystic type becomes a great god, the preserver and the renovator, he “of a thousand names—Sahasranâma ”.

 

Vishwakarman (Sk.). The “Omnificent”. A Vedic god, a personification of the creative Force, described as the One “all-seeing god, . . . the generator, disposer, who . . . is beyond the comprehension of (uninitiated) mortals”. In the two hymns of the Rig -Veda specially devoted to him, he is said “to sacrifice himself  to himself  ”. The names of his mother, “the lovely and virtuous Yoga-Siddha” (Purânas) and of his daughter Sanjnâ (spiritual consciousness), show his mystic character. (See Secret Doctrine, sub voc.) As the artificer of the gods and maker of their weapons, he is called Karu, “workman”, Takshaka “carpenter”, or “wood-cutter”, etc., etc.

 

Vishwatryarchas (Sk.) The fourth solar (mystic) ray of the seven. (See Secret Doctrine, I., p. 515, n.)

 

Vivaswat (Sk.). The “bright One”, the Sun.

 

Viwan (Sk.). Some kind “of air-vehicle”, like a balloon, mentioned but not described in the old Sanskrit works, which the Atlanteans and the ancient Aryas seem to have known and used.

 

Voluspa (Scand.). A poem called “The Song of the Prophetess”, or “Song of Wala ”.

 

Voodooism, or Voodoos. A system of African sorcery; a sect of black magicians, to which the New Orleans negroes are much addicted. It flourishes likewise in Cuba and South America.

 

Voordalak (Slav.). A vampire; a corpse informed by its lower principles, and maintaining a kind of semi-life in itself by raising itself during the night from the grave, fascinating its living victims and sucking out their blood. Roumanians, Moldavians, Servians, and all the Slavonian tribes dwelling in the Balkans, and also the Tchechs (Bohemians), Moravians, and others, firmly believe in the existence of such ghosts and dread them accordingly.

 

Votan (Mex.). The deified hero of the Mexicans, and probably the same as Quetzal-Coatl; a “son of the snakes”, one admitted “to the snake’s hole ”, which means an Adept admitted to the Initiation in the secret chamber of the Temple. The missionary Brasseur de Bourbourg, seeks to prove him a descendant of Ham, the accursed son of Noah. (See Isis Unveiled, I., pp. 545 et seq.)

 

Vrata (Sk) Law, or power of the gods.

 

Vratâni (Sk.). Varuna’s “active laws”, courses of natural action. (See Rig -Vedic Hymns, X., 90-1.

 

Vriddha Garga (Sk.). From Vriddha, “old”, and Garga, an ancient sage, one of the oldest writers on astronomy.

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Vriddha Mânava (Sk.) The laws of Manu.

 

Vritra (Sk.). The demon of drought in the Vedas, a great foe of Indra, with whom he is constantly at war. The allegory of a cosmic phenomenon.

 

Vritra-han (Sk.) An epithet or title of Indra, meaning “the slayer of Vritra”.

 

Vyahritis (Slav.). Lit., “ fiery ”, words lit by and born of fire. The three mystical, creative words, said by Manu to have been milked by the Prajâpati from the Vedas: bhűr, from the Rig -Veda; bhuvah, from the Vajur-Veda; and Swar, from the Sama-Veda (Manu II., 76). All three are said to possess creative powers. The Satapatha Brâhmana explains that they are “the three luminous essences” extracted from the Vedas by Prajâpati (“lords of creation ”, progenitors), through heat. “He (Brahmâ) uttered the word bhűr and it became the earth; bhuvah, and it became the firmament; and swar, which became heaven”. Mahar is the fourth “luminous essence ”, and was taken from the Atharva-Veda. But, as this word is purely mantric and magical, it is one, so to say, kept apart.

 

Vyâsa (Sk.).. Lit., one who expands or amplifies; an interpreter, or rather a revealer; for that which he explains, interprets and amplifies is a mystery to the profane. This term was applied in days of old to the highest Gurus in India. There were many Vyâsas in Aryavarta; one was the compiler and arranger of the Vedas; another, the author of the Mahâbhârata—the twenty-eighth Vyâsa or revealer in the order of
succession
—and the last one of note was the author of Uttara Mîmânsâ, the sixth school or system of Indian philosophy. He was also the founder of the Vedânta system. His date, as assigned by Orientalists (see Elphinstone, Cowell, etc.), is 1,400 B.C., but this date is certainly too recent. The Purânas mention only twenty-eight Vyâsas, who at various ages descended to the earth to promulgate Vedic truths—but there were many more.

 

             

      W        

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W_The 23rd letter. Has no equivalent in Hebrew. In Western Occultism some take it as the symbol for celestial water, whereas M stands for terrestrial water.

 

Wala (Scand.). A prophetess in the songs of the Edda (Norse mythology). Through the incantations of Odin she was raised from her grave, and made to prophesy the death of Baldur.

 

Walhalla (Scand.). A kind of paradise (Devachan) for slaughtered warriors, called by the Norsemen “the hall of the blessed heroes”; it has five hundred doors.

 

Wali (Scand.). The son of Odin who avenges the death of Baldur, “the well-beloved”.

 

Walkyries (Scand.). Called the “choosers of the dead”. In the popular poetry of the Scandinavians, these goddesses consecrate the fallen heroes with a kiss, and bearing them from the battle-field carry them to the halls of bliss and to the gods in Walhalla.

 

Wanes (Scand.). A race of gods of great antiquity, worshipped at the dawn of time by the Norsemen, and later by the Teutonic races.

 

Wara (Scand.). One of the maidens of Northern Freya; “the wise Wara ”, who watches the desires of each human heart, and avenges every breach of faith.

 

Water. The first principle of things, according to Thales and other ancient philosophers. Of course this is not water on the material plane, but in a figurative sense for the potential fluid contained in boundless space. This was symbolised in ancient Egypt by Kneph, the “unrevealed” god, who was represented as the serpent—the emblem of eternity—encircling a water-urn, with his head hovering over the waters, which he incubates with his breath. “And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.” (Gen. i.) The honey-dew, the food of the gods and of the creative bees on the Yggdrasil, falls during the night upon the tree of life from the “divine waters, the birth-place of the gods ”. Alchemists claim that when pre-Adamic earth is reduced by the Alkahest to its first substance, it is like clear water. The Alkahest is “the one and the invisible, the water, the first principle, in the second transformation”.

 

We (Scand.). One of the three gods—Odin, Wili and We—who kill the giant Ymir (chaotic force), and create the world out of his body, the primordial substance.

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Werdandi (Scand.). See “ Nörns ”, the three sister-goddesses who represent the Past, the Present and the Future. Werdandi represents the ever-present time.

 

Whip of Osiris. The scourge which symbolises Osiris as the “judge of the dead ”. It is called the nekhekh, in the papyri, or the flagellum. Dr. Pritchard sees in it a fan or van, the winnowing instrument. Osiris, “whose fan is in his hand and who purges the Amenti of sinful hearts as a winnower sweeps his floor of the fallen grains and locks the good wheat into his garner ”. (Compare Matthew, 12.)

 

White Fire (Kab.). The Zohar treating of the “Long Face” and Short Face “, the symbols of Macrocosm and Microcosm, speaks of the hidden White Fire, radiating from these night and day and yet never seen. It answers to vital force (beyond luminiferous ether), and electricity on the higher and lower planes. But the mystic “White Fire” is a name given to Ain-Soph. And this is the difference between the Aryan and the Semitic philosophies. The Occultists of the former speak of the Black Fire, which is the symbol of the unknown and unthinkable Brahm, and declare any speculation on the“ Black Fire” impossible. But the Kabbalists who, owing to a subtle permutation of meaning, endow even Ain-Soph with a kind of indirect will and attributes, call its “fire” white, thus dragging the Absolute into the world of relation and finiteness.

 

White Head. In Hebrew Resha Hivra, an epithet given to Sephira, the highest of the Sephiroth, whose cranium “ distils the dew which will call the dead again to life”.

 

White Stone. The sign of initiation mentioned in St. John’s Revelation. It had the word prize engraved on it, and was the symbol of that word given to the neophyte who, in his initiation, had successfully passed through all the trials in the MYSTERIES, it was the potent white cornelian of the medićval Rosicrucians, who took it from the Gnostics. ‘ To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna (the occult knowledge which descends as divine wisdom from heaven), and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written (the ‘mystery name’ of the inner man or the EGO of the new Initiate), which no man knoweth saving him that receiveth it.” (Revelation, ii. 17.)

 

Widow’s Son. A name given to the French Masons, because the Masonic ceremonies are principally based on the adventures and death of Hiram Abif, “the widow’s son”, who is supposed to have helped to build the mythical Solomon’s Temple.

 

Wili (Scand.). See “ We ”.

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Will. In metaphysics and occult philosophy, Will is that which governs the manifested universes in eternity. Will is the one and sole principle of abstract eternal MOTION, or its ensouling essence. “ The will”, says Van Helmont, “is the first of all powers. . . . The will is the property of all spiritual beings and displays itself in them the more actively the more they are freed from matter.” And Paracelsus teaches that “determined will is the beginning of all magical operations. It is because men do not perfectly imagine and believe the result, that the (occult) arts are so uncertain, while they might he perfectly certain.” Like all the rest, the Will is septenary in its degrees of manifestation. Emanating from the one, eternal, abstract and purely quiescent Will (Âtmâ in Layam), it becomes Buddhi in its Alaya state, descends lower as Mahat (Manas), and runs down the ladder of degrees until the divine Eros becomes, in its lower, animal manifestation, erotic desire. Will as an eternal principle is neither spirit nor substance but everlasting ideation. As well expressed by Schopenhauer in his Parerga, “ in sober reality there is neither matter nor spirit. The tendency to gravitation in a stone is as unexplainable as thought in the human brain. . . If matter can—no one knows why——fall to the ground, then it can also—no one knows why—-think. . . . As soon, even in mechanics, as we trespass beyond the purely mathematical, as soon as we reach the inscrutable adhesion, gravitation, and so on, we are faced by phenomena which are to our senses as mysterious as the WILL.”

 

Wisdom. The “ very essence of wisdom is contained in the Non- Being ”. say the Kabbalists; but they also apply the term to the WORD or Logos, the Demiurge, by which the universe was called into existence. “The one Wisdom is in the Sound ”, say the Occultists; the Logos again being meant by Sound, which is the substratum of Âkâsa. Says the Zohar, the “ Book of Splendour” “It is the Principle of all the Principles, the mysterious Wisdom, the crown of all that which there is of the most High”. (Zohar, iii., fol. 288, Myers Qabbalah.) And it is explained, “Above Kether is the Ayin, or Ens, i.e., Ain, the NOTHING”. “It is so named because we do not know, and it is impossible to know, that which there is in that Principle, because . . . it is above Wisdom itself.” (iii., fol. 288.) This shows that the real Kabbalists agree with the Occultists that the essence, or that which is in the principle of Wisdom, is still above that highest Wisdom.

 

Wisdom Religion. The one religion which underlies all the now-existing creeds. That “faith” which, being primordial, and revealed directly to human kind by their progenitors and informing EGOS (though the Church regards them as the “fallen angels”), required no “grace”, nor blind faith to believe, for it was knowledge. (See “Gupta Vidyâ”,

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Hidden Knowledge.) It is on this Wisdom Religion that Theosophy is based.

 

Witch. From the Anglo-Saxon word wicce, German wissen, “to know”, and wikken, “to divine”. The witches were at first called “wise women”, until the day when the Church took it unto herself to follow the law of Moses, which put every “witch” or enchantress to death.

 

Witchcraft. Sorcery, enchantment, the art of throwing spells and using black magic.

 

Witches’ Sabbath. The supposed festival and gathering of witches in some lonely spot, where the witches were accused of conferring directly with the Devil. Every race and people believed in it, and some believe in it still. Thus the chief headquarters and place of meeting of all the witches in Russia is said to be the Bald Mountain (Lyssaya Gorâ), near Kief, and in Germany the Brocken, in the Harz Mountains. In old Boston, U.S.A., they met near the “Devil’s Pond ”, in a large forest which has now disappeared. At Salem, they were put to death almost at the will of the Church Elders, and in South Carolina a witch was burnt as late as 1865. In Germany and England they were murdered by Church and State in thousands, being forced to lie and confess under torture their participation in the “ Witches’ Sabbath ”.

 

Wittoba (Sk.). A form of Vishnu. Moor gives in his Hindu Pantheon the picture of Wittoba crucified in Space; and the Rev. Dr. Lundy maintains (Monumental Christianity) that this engraving is anterior to Christianity and is the crucified Krishna, a Saviour, hence a concrete prophecy of Christ.
(See
Isis Unveiled, II., 557,

 

Wizard. A wise man. An enchanter, or sorcerer.

 

Wodan (Saxon). The Scandinavian Odin, Votan, or Wuotan.

 

World. As a prefix to mountains, trees, and so on, it denotes a universal belief. Thus the “World-Mountain” of the Hindus was Meru. As said in Isis Unveiled: “All the world-mountains and mundane eggs, the mundane trees, and the mundane snakes and pillars, may be shown to embody scientifically demonstrated truths of natural philosophy. All of these mountains contain, with very trifling variations, the allegorically-expressed description of primal cosmogony ; the mundane trees, that of subsequent evolution of spirit and matter; the mundane snakes and pillars, symbolical memorials of the various attributes of this double evolution in its endless correlation of cosmic forces. Within the mysterious recesses of the mountain—the matrix of the universe—the gods (powers) prepare the atomic germs of organic life, and at the same time the life-drink, which, when tasted, awakens in man-matter the
man-spirit.

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The Soma, the sacrificial drink of the Hindus, is that sacred beverage. For, at the creation of the prima materia, while the grossest portions of it were used for the physical embryo-world, its more divine essence pervaded the universe, invisibly permeating and enclosing within its ethereal waves the newly-born infant, developing and stimulating it to activity as it slowly evolved out of the eternal chaos. From the poetry of abstract conception, these mundane myths gradually passed into the concrete images of cosmic symbols, as archćology now finds them.” Another and still more usual prefix to all these objects is
“Mundane”. (See “Mundane Egg”, “Mundane Tree”, and “Yggdrasil”.)

 

Worlds, the Four. The Kabbalists recognise Four Worlds of Existence: viz., Atziluth or archetypal ; Briah or creative, the first reflection of the highest; Yetzirah or formative; and Assiah, the ‘World of Shells or Klippoth, and the material universe. The essence of Deity concentrating into the Sephiroth is first manifested in the Atziluthic World, and their reflections are produced in succession in each of the four planes, with gradually lessening radiance and purity, until the material universe is arrived at. Some authors call these four planes the intellectual, Moral, Sensuous, and Material Worlds. [w.w.w.]

 

Worlds, Inferior and Superior. The Occultists and the Kabbalists agree in dividing the universe into superior and inferior worlds, the worlds of Idea and the worlds of Matter. “As above, so below”, states the Hermetic philosophy. This lower world is formed on its prototype—the higher world; and “everything in the lower is but an image (a reflection) of the higher”. (Zohar, ii., fol. 2oa.)

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X.—This letter is one of the important symbols in the Occult philosophy. As a numeral X stands, in mathematics, for the unknown quantity; in occult numerals, for the perfect number 10; when placed horizontally, thus χ, it means 1,000; the same with a dash over it χ for 10,000; and by itself, in occult symbolism, it is Plato’s logos (man as a microcosm) decussated in space in the form of the letter X. The , or cross within the circle, has moreover a still clearer significance in Eastern occult philosophy: it IS MAN within his own spherical envelope.

 

Xenophilus. A Pythagorean adept and philosopher, credited by Lucian (de Macrob.), Pliny and others with having lived to his 170th year, preserving all his faculties to the last. He wrote on music and was surnamed the “ Musician”.

 

Xisusthrus (Gr.). The Chaldean Noah, on the Assyrian tablets, who is thus described in the history of the ten kings by Berosus, according to Alexander Polyhistor: “After the death of (the ninth) Ardates, his son Xisusthrus reigned eighteen sari. In his time happened a great deluge.” Warned by his deity in a vision of the forthcoming cataclysm, Xisusthrus was ordered by that deity to build an ark, to convey into it his relations, together with all the different animals, bird etc., and trust himself to the rising waters. Obeying the divine admonition, Xisusthrus is shown to do precisely what Noah did many thousand years after him. He sent out birds from the vessel which returned to him again; then a few days after he sent them again, and they returned with their feet coated with mud; but the third time they came back to him no more. Stranded on a high mountain of Armenia, Xisusthrus descends and builds an altar to the gods. Here only, comes a divergence between the polytheistic and monotheistic legends. Xisusthrus, having worshipped and rendered thanks to the gods for his salvation, disappeared, and his companions “saw him no more ”. The story informs us that on account of his great piety Xisusthrus and his family were translated to live with the gods, as he himself told the survivors. For though his body was gone, his voice was heard in the air, which, after apprising them of the occurrence, admonished them to return to Babylon, and pay due regard to virtue, religion, and the gods. This is more meritorious than to plant vines, get drunk on the juice of the grape, and curse one’s own son.

 

 

            

  

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Y.—The twenty-fifth letter of the English alphabet, and the tenth of the Hebrew—the Yod. It is the litera Pythagorś the Pythagorean letter and symbol, signifying the two branches, or paths of virtue and vice respectively, the right leading to virtue, the left to vice. In Hebrew Kabbalistic mysticism it is the phallic male member, and also as number ten, the perfect number. Symbolically, it is represented by a hand with bent forefinger. Its numerical equivalent is ten.

 

Yâdaya (Sk.). A descendant of Yadu; of the great race in which Krishna was born. The founder of this line was Yadu, the son of King Yayâti of the Somavansa or Lunar Race.It was under Krishna— certainly no mythical personage—that the kingdom of Dwârakâ in Guzerat was established; and also after the death of Krishna (3102 B.c.) that all the Yâdavas present in the city perished, when it was submerged by the ocean. Only a few of the Yâdavas, who were absent from the town at the time of the catastrophe, escaped to perpetuate this great race. The Râjâs of Vijaya-Nâgara are now among the small number of its representatives.

 

Yah (Heb.). The word, as claimed in the Zohar, through which the Elohim formed the worlds. The syllable is a national adaptation and one of the many forms of the “Mystery name”IAO.
(See “Iaho” and “Yâho ”.)

 

Yâho (Heb.). Fürst shows this to be the same as the Greek Iao. Yâho is an old Semitic and very mystic name of the supreme deity, while Yah (q.v.) is a later abbreviation which, from containing an abstract ideal, became finally applied to, and connected with, a phallic symbol—the lingham of creation. Both Yah and Yâho were Hebrew “mystery names” derived from Iao, but the Chaldeans had a Yâho before the Jews adopted it, and with them, as explained by some Gnostics and Neo-Platonists, it was the highest conceivable deity enthroned above the seven heavens and representing Spiritual Light (Âtman, the universal), whose ray was Nous, standing both for the intelligent Demiurge of the Universe of Matter and the Divine Manas in man, both being Spirit. The true key of this, communicated to the Initiates only, was that the name of IAO was “triliteral and its nature secret ”, as explained by the Hierophants. The Phśnicians too had a supreme deity whose name was triliteral, and

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its meanings secret, this was also IAO; and Y-ha-ho was a sacred word in the Egyptian mysteries, which signified “the one eternal and concealed deity” in nature and in man; i.e., the “universal Divine Ideation”, and the human Manas, or the higher Ego.

 

Yajna (Sk.). “Sacrifice”, whose symbol or representation is now the constellation Mriga-shiras (deer-head), and also a form of Vishnu. “ The Yajna ”, say the Brahmans, “exists from eternity, for it proceeded from the Supreme, in whom it lay dormant from no beginning ”. It is the key to the Trai-Vidyâ , the thrice sacred science contained in the Rig -Veda verses, which teaches the Yajna or sacrificial mysteries. As Haug states in his Introduction to the Aitareya Brâhmana—the Yajna exists as an invisible presence at all times, extending from the Âhavanîya or sacrificial fire to the heavens, forming a bridge or ladder by means of which the sacrificer can communicate with the world of devas, “and even ascend when alive to their abodes”. It is one of the forms of Akâsa, within which the mystic WORD (or its underlying “ Sound ”) calls it into existence. Pronounced by the Priest-Initiate or Yogi, this WORD receives creative powers, and is communicated as an impulse on the terrestrial plane through a trained Will-power.

 

Yakin and Boaz (Heb.). A Kabbalistic and Masonic symbol. The two pillars of bronze (Yakin, male and white; Boaz, female and red), cast by Hiram Abif of Tyre, called “the Widow’s Son , for Solomon’s supposed (Masonic) Temple. Yakin was the symbol of Wisdom (Chokmah), the second Sephira; and Boaz, that of Intelligence (Binah); the temple between the two being regarded as Kether, the crown, Father- Mother.

 

Yaksha (Sk.). A class of demons, who, in popular Indian folk-lore, devour men. In esoteric science they are simply evil (elemental) influences, who in the sight of seers and clairvoyants descend on men, when open to the reception of such influences, like a fiery comet or a shooting star.

 

Yama (Heb.). The personified third root-race in Occultism. In the Indian Pantheon Yama is the subject of two distinct versions of the myth. In the Vedas he is the god of the dead, a Pluto or a Minos, with whom the shades of the departed dwell (the Kâmarűpas in Kâmaloka). A hymn speaks of Yama as the first of men that died, and the first that departed to the world of bliss (Devachan). This, because Yama is the embodiment of the race which was the first to be endowed with consciousness (Manas), without which there is neither Heaven nor Hades. Yama is represented as the son of Vivaswat (the Sun). He had a twin-sister named Yami, who was ever urging him, according to another hymn, to take her

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for his wife, in order to perpetuate the species. The above has a very suggestive symbolical meaning, which is explained in Occultism. As Dr. Muir truly remarks, the Rig -Veda—the greatest authority on the primeval myths which strike the original key-note of the themes that underlie all the subsequent variations—nowhere shows Yama “as having anything to do with the punishment of the wicked ”. As king and judge of the dead, a Pluto in short, Yama is a far later creation. One has to study the true character of Yama-Yamî throughout more than one hymn and epic poem, and collect the various accounts scattered in dozens of ancient works, and then he will obtain a consensus of allegorical statements which will be found to corroborate and justify the Esoteric teaching, that Yama-Yamî is the symbol of the dual Manas, in one of its mystical meanings. For instance, Yama-Yamî is always represented of a green colour and clothed with red, and as dwelling in a palace of copper and iron. Students of Occultism know to which of the human “principles” the green and the red colours, and by correspondence the iron and copper,’ are to be applied. The “twofold-ruler ”—the epithet of Yama Yamî—is regarded in the exoteric teachings of the Chino-Buddhists as both judge and criminal, the restrainer of his own evil doings and the evil-doer himself. In the Hindu epic poems Yama-Yami is the twin- child of the Sun (the deity) by Sanjnâ (spiritual consciousness); but while Yama is the Aryan “lord of the day”, appearing as the symbol of spirit in the East, Yamî is the queen of the night (darkness, ignorance) “who opens to mortals the path to the West ”—the emblem of evil and matter. In the Purânas Yama has many wives (many Yamis) who force him to dwell in the lower world (Pâtâla, Myalba, etc., etc.); and an allegory represents him with his foot lifted, to kick Chhâyâ, the hand maiden of his father (the astral body of his mother, Sanjnâ, a metaphysical aspect of Buddhi or Alaya). As stated in the Hindu Scriptures, a soul when it quits its mortal frame, repairs to its abode in the lower regions (Kâmaloka or Hades). Once there, the Recorder, the Karmic messenger called Chitragupta (hidden or concealed brightness), reads out his account from the Great Register, wherein during the life of the human being, every deed and thought are indelibly impressed-— and, according to the sentence pronounced, the “soul” either ascends to the abode of the Pitris (Devachan), descends to a “hell ” (Kâmaloka), or is reborn on earth in another human form. The student of Esoteric philosophy will easily recognise the bearings of the allegories.

 

Yamabooshee, or Yamabusi (Jap.). A sect in Japan of very ancient and revered mystics. They are monks “militant” and warriors, if needed, as are certain Yogis in Rajputana and the Lamas in Tibet. This Mystic brotherhood dwell chiefly near Kioto, and are renowned for their

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healing powers, says the Encyclopśdia, which translates the name “Hermit Brothers”: “They pretend to magical arts, and live in the recesses of mountains and craggy steeps, whence they come forth to tell fortunes (?), write charms and sell amulets. They lead a mysterious life and admit no one to their secrets, except after a tedious and difficult preparation by fasting and a species of severe gymnastic exercise ! ”)

 

Yasna, or Yacna (Pahl.). The third portion of the first of the two parts of the Avesta, the Scripture of the Zoroastrian Parsis. The Yasna is composed of litanies of the same kind as the Vispęrad (the second portion) and of five hymns or gâthas. These gâthas are the oldest fragments of Zoroastrian literature known to the Parsis, for they are written “in a special dialect, older than the general language of the Avesta” (Darmesteter). (See “ Zend ”.)

 

Yati (Sk) A measure of three feet.

 

Yâtus, or Yâtudhânas (Sk.). A kind of animal-formed demons. Esoterically, human animal passions.

 

Yazathas (Zend). Pure celestial spirits, whom the Vendidâd shows once upon a time sharing their food with mortals, who thus participate in their existence.

 

Years of Brahmâ. The whole period of “Brahma’s Age” (100 Years). Equals 31I,040,000,000,000 years. (See “Yuga ”.)

 

Yeheedah (Heb.). Lit., “Individuality ”; esoterically, the highest individuality or Âtmâ-Buddhi-Manas, when united in one. This doctrine is in the Chaldean Book of Numbers, which teaches a septenary division of human “principles”, so-called, as does the Kabalah in the Zohar, according to the Book of Solomon (iii.,Io4a so as translated in I. Myer’s Qabbalah). At the time of the conception, the Holy “sends a d’yook-nah, or the phantom of a shadow image” like the face of a man. it is designed and sculptured in the divine tzelem, i.e., the shadow image of the Elohim. “ Elohim created man in his (their) tzelem ” or image, says Genesis (i. 27). It is the tzelem that awaits the child and receives it at the moment of its conception, and this tzelem is our linga sharira. “ The Rua’h forms with the Nephesh the actual personality of the man ”, and also his individuality, or, as expressed by the Kabbalist, the combination of the two is called, if he (man) deserves it, Yeheedah. This combination is that which the Theosophist calls the dual Manas, the Higher and the Lower Ego, united to Âtmâ-Buddhi and become one. For as explained in the Zohar
(i., 205b, 206a, Brody Ed.): “Neshamah, soul (Buddhi), comprises three degrees, and therefore she has three names, like the mystery above: that is, Nephesh, Rua’h, Neshamah “, or the Lower Manas, the Higher Ego, and Buddhi, the Divine Soul. “It is also to be noted that the Neshamah has

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three divisions;” says Myer’s Qabbalah, “the highest is the Ye-hee-dah ”—or Âtmâ-Buddhi-Manas, the latter once more as a unit; “the middle principle is Hay-yak “—or Buddhi and the dual Manas; ”and the last and third, the Neshamah, properly speaking ”—or Soul in general. “They manifest themselves in Ma’hshabah, thought, Tzelem, phantom of the image, Zurath, prototypes (mâyâvic forms, or rűpas), and the D'yooknah, shadow of the phantom image. The D’mooth, likeness or similitude (physical body), is a lower manifestation” (p. 392). Here then, we find the faithful echo of Esoteric science in the Zohar and other Kabbalistic works, a perfect Esoteric septenary division. Every Theosophist who has studied the doctrine sketched out first in Mr. Sinnett’s Occult World and Esoteric Buddhism, and later in the Theosophist, Lucifer, and other writings, will recognise them in the Zohar. Compare for instance what is taught in Theosophical works about the pre- and post-mortem states of the three higher and the four lower human principles, with the following from the Zohar: “ Because all these three are one knot like the above, in the mystery of Nephesh, Rua’h, Neshamah, they are all one, and bound in one. Nephesh (Kâma-Manas) has no light from her own substance; and it is for this reason that she is associated with the mystery of guff, the body, to procure enjoyment and food and everything which it needs.

Rua’h (the Spirit) is that which rides on that Nephesh (the lower soul) and rules over her and lights (supplies) her with everything she needs [ with the light of reason], and the Nephesh is the throne [ of that Ru’ah. Neshamah (Divine Soul) goes over to that Rua’h, and she rules over that Rua’h and lights to him with that Light of Life, and that Rua’h depends on the Neshamah and receives light from her, which illuminates him. . . When the ‘upper’ Neshamah ascends (after the death of the body), she goes to . . . the Ancient of the Ancient, the Hidden of all the Hidden, to receive Eternity. The Rua’h does not
[ go to Gan Eden [ because he is [ up with] Nephesh the Rua’h goes up to Eden, but not so high as the soul, and Nephesh [ animal principle, lower soul] remains in the grave below [ Kâmaloka]

(Zohar, ii., 142a, Cremona Ed., ii., fol. 63b col. 252). It would be difficult not to recognise in the above our Âtmâ (or the “upper” Neshamah), Buddhi (Neshamah),. Manas (Rua’h), and Kâma-Manas (Nephesh) or the lower animal soul; the first of which goes after the death of man to join its integral whole, the second and the third proceeding to Devachan, and the last, or the Kâmarűpa, “remaining in its grave”, called other wise the Kâmaloka or Hades.

 

Yęnę, Angânta. The meaning of the Angânta Yęnę is known to all India. It is the action of an elemental (bhűt), who, drawn into the sensitive and passive body of a medium, takes possession of it. In other

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words, angânta vęnę means literally “obsession”. The Hindus dread such a calamity now as strongly as they did thousands of years ago. “No Hindu, Tibetan, or Sinhalese, unless of the lowest caste and intelligence, can see, without a shudder of horror, the signs of ‘mediumship’ manifest themselves in a member of his family, or without saying, as a Christian would do now, ‘ he hath the devil’. This ‘gift, blessing, and holy mission’, so called in England and America. is, among the older peoples, in the cradle-lands of our race, where longer experience than ours has taught them more spiritual wisdom, regarded as a dire misfortune.”

 

Yesod (Heb.). The ninth Sephira; meaning Basis or Foundation.

 

Yetzirah (Heb.). The third of the Four Kabbalistic Worlds, referred to the Angels; the “World of Formation”, or Olam Yetzirah. It is also called Malahayah, or “of the Angels ”. It is the abode of all the ruling Genii (or Angels) who control and rule planets, worlds and spheres.

 

Yeu (Chin.). “Being”, a synonym of Subhâva; or “the Substance giving substance to itself ”.

 

Yggdrasil (Scand.). The “World Tree of the Norse Cosmogony; the ash Yggdrasil ; the tree of the Universe, of time and of life”. It has three roots, which reach down to cold Hel, and spread thence to Jotun heim, the land of the Hrimthurses, or “ Frost Giants ”, and to Midgard, the earth and dwelling of the children of men. Its upper boughs stretch out into heaven, and its highest branch overshadows Waihalla, the Devachan of the fallen heroes. The Yggdrasil is ever fresh and green, as it is daily sprinkled by the Norns, the three fateful sisters, the Past, the Present, and the Future, with the waters of life from the fountain of Urd that flows on our earth. It will wither and disappear only on the day when the last battle between good and evil is fought ; when, the former prevailing, life, time and space pass out of life and space and time. Every ancient people had their world-tree. The Babylonians had their “tree of life”, which was the world-tree, whose roots penetrated into the great lower deep or Hades, whose trunk was on the earth, and whose upper boughs reached Zikum, the highest heaven above. Instead of in Walhalla, they placed its upper foliage in the holy house of Davkina, the “great mother” of Tammuz, the Saviour of the world—the Sun-god put to death by the enemies of light.

 

Yi-King. (Chin.). An ancient Chinese work, written by generations of sages.

 

Yima (Zend). In the Vendîdâd, the first man, and, from his aspect of spiritual progenitor of mankind, the same as Yama (q.v.). His further

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functions are not given in the Zend books, because so many of these ancient fragments have been lost, made away with, or otherwise prevented from falling into the hands of the profane. Yima was not born, for he represents the first three human Root-races, the first of which is “not born”; but he is the “first man who dies”, because the third race, the one which was informed by the rational Higher Egos, was the first one whose men separated into male and female, and “man lived and died, and was reborn”. (See Secret Doctrine, II., pp. 60 et seq.)

 

Ymir (Scand.). The personified matter of our globe in a seething condition. The cosmic monster in the form of a giant, who is killed in the cosmogonical allegories of the Eddas by the three creators, the sons of Bör, Odin, Wili and We, who are said to have conquered Ymir and created the world out of his body. This allegory shows the three principal forces of nature—separation, formation and growth (or evolution) conquering the unruly, raging “giant” matter, and forcing it to become a world, or an inhabited globe. it is curious that an ancient, primitive and uncultured pagan people, so philosophical and scientifically correct in their views about the origin and formation of the earth, should, in order to be regarded as civilized, have to accept the dogma that the world was created out of nothing!

 

Yod (Heb.). The tenth letter of the alphabet, the first in the four fold symbol of the compound name
Jah-hovah (Jehovah) or Jah-Eve, the hermaphrodite force and existence in nature. Without the later vowels, the word Jehovah is written IHVH (the letter Yod standing for all the three English letters y, i, or j, as the case may require), and is male-female. The letter Yod is the symbol of the lingham, or male organ, in its natural triple form, as the Kabalah shows. The second letter He, has for its symbol the yoni, the womb or “ window-opening” as the Kabalah has it ; the symbol of the third letter, the Vau, is a crook or a nail (the bishop’s crook having its origin in this), another male letter, and the fourth is the same as the second—the whole meaning to be or to exist under one of these forms or both. Thus the word or name is pre-eminently phallic, it is that of the fighting god of the Jews, “ Lord of Hosts” ; of the “aggressive Yod” or Zodh, Cain (by permutation), who slew his female brother, Abel, and spilt his (her) blood. This name, selected out of many by the early Christian writers, was an unfortunate one for their religion on account of its associations and original significance ; it is a number at best, an organ in reality. This letter Yod has passed into God and Gott.

 

Yoga (Sk.). (1) One of the six Darshanas or schools of India; a school of philosophy founded by Patanjali, though the real Yoga doctrine, the one that is said to have helped to prepare the world for the preaching

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of Buddha, is attributed with good reasons to the more ancient sage Yâjnawalkya, the writer of the Shatapatha Brâhmana, of Yajur Veda, the Brihad Âranyaka, and other famous works. (2) The practice of meditation as a means of leading to spiritual liberation. Psycho-spiritual powers are obtained thereby, and induced ecstatic states lead to the clear and correct perception of the eternal truths, in both the visible and invisible universe.

 

Yogâchârya (Sk.). (1) A mystic school. (2) Lit., a teacher (âchârya) of Yoga, one who has mastered the doctrines and practices of ecstatic meditation—the culmination of which are the Mahâsiddhis. It is incorrect to confuse this school with the Tantra, or Mahâtantra school founded by Samantabhadra, for there are two Yogâchârya Schools, one esoteric, the other popular. The doctrines of the latter were compiled and glossed by Asamgha in the sixth century of our era, and his mystic tantras and mantras, his formularies, litanies, spells and mudrâ would certainly, if attempted without a Guru, serve rather purposes of sorcery and black magic than real Yoga. Those who undertake to write upon the subject are generally learned missionaries and haters of Eastern philosophy in general. From these no unbiassed views can be expected. Thus when we read in the Sanskrit -Chinese Dictionary of Eitel, that the reciting of mantras (which he calls “ spells”!) “ should he accompanied by music and distortions of the fingers (mudrâ), that a state of mental fixity (Samâdhi} might he reached ‘—one acquainted, however slightly,. with the real practice of Yoga can only shrug his shoulders. These distortions of the fingers or ,mudrâ are necessary, the author thinks, for the reaching of Samâdhi, “characterized by there being neither thought nor annihilation of thought, and consisting of six-fold bodily (sic) and mental happiness (yogi) whence would result endowment with supernatural miracle-working power”. Theosophists cannot be too much warned against such fantastic and prejudiced explanations.

 

Yogi (Sk.). (1) Not “a state of six-fold bodily and mental happiness as the result, of ecstatic meditation” (Eitel) but a state which, when reached, makes the practitioner thereof absolute master of his six principles”, he now being merged in the seventh. It gives him full control, owing to his knowledge of SELF and Self, over his bodily, intellectual and mental states, which, unable any longer to interfere with, or act upon, his Higher Ego, leave it free to exist in its original, pure, and divine state.

(2) Also the name of the devotee who practises Yoga.

 

Yong-Grüb (Tib.). A state of absolute rest, the same as Paranirvâna.

 

Yoni (Sk.). The womb, the female principle.

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Yudishthira (Sk.). One of the heroes of the Mahâbharata. The eldest brother of the Pândavas, or the five Pându princes who fought against their next of kin, the Kauravas, the sons of their maternal uncle. Arjuna, the disciple of Krishna, was his younger brother. The Bhagavad Gitâ gives mystical particulars of this war. Kunti was the mother of the Pândavas, and Draupadî the wife in common of the five brothers— an allegory. But Yudishthira is also, as well as Krishna, Arjuna, and so many other heroes, an historical character, who lived some 5,000 years ago, at the period when the Kali Yuga set in.

Yuga (Sk.). A 1,000th part of a Kalpa. An age of the World of which there are four, and the series of which proceed in succession during the manvantaric cycle. Each Yuga is preceded by a period called in the Purânas Sandhyâ, twilight, or transition period, and is followed by another period of like duration called Sandhyânsa, “portion of twilight”. Each is equal to one-tenth of the Yuga.  The group of four Yugas is first computed by the divine years, or “ years of the gods”—each such year being equal to 360 years of mortal men. Thus we have, in “divine” years :

      1.          Krita or Satya Yuga      -           - -        4,000

           Sandhyâ           -           -           -           -           400

           Sandhyansa      -           -           -           -          400

                                                                                                 4,800

 

      2.  Tretâ Yuga    -           -           -           -           3,000

           Sandhyâ           -           -           -           -           300

           Sandhyânsa      -           -           -           -          300

                                                                                                 3,600

 

      3.  Dwâpara Yuga          -           -           -           2,000

           Sandhya           -           -           -           -           200

           Sandhyânsa      -           -           -           -          200

                                                                                                2,400

     

      4.  Kali Yuga         -           -           -           -       1,000

           Sandhyâ           -           -           -           -          100

           Sandhyânsa -           -           -           -              100

                                                                                                1,200

                                                                        Total    12,000

This rendered in years of mortals equals:

                     4800    X 360      =    1,728,000

                                                                          3600    X 360      =    1,296,000

                                                                          2400    X 360      =       864,000

                                                                          1200    X 360       =      432,000

                                             Total  4,320,000

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The above is called a Mahâyuga or Manvantara. 2,000 such Mahâyugas, or a period of 8,640,000 years, make a Kalpa the latter being only a “day and a night”, or twenty-four hours, of Brahmâ. Thus an “age of Brahmâ”, or one hundred of his divine years, must equal 311,040,000,000,000 of our mortal years. The old Mazdeans or Magi (the modern Parsis) had the same calculation, though the Orientalists do not seem to perceive it, for even the Parsi Moheds themselves have forgotten it. But their “Sovereign time of the Long Period” (Zervan Dareghâ Hvadâta) lasts 12,000 years, and these are the 12,000 divine years of a Mahâyuga as shown above, whereas the Zervan Akarana (Limitless Time), mentioned by Zarathustra, is the Kâla, out of space and time, of Parabrahm.

 

Yurbo Adonai. A contemptuous epithet given by the followers of the Nazarene Codex, the St. John Gnostics, to the Jehovah of the Jews.

 

Yürmungander (Scand.). A name of the Midgard snake in the Edda, whose brother is Wolf Fenris, and whose sister is the horrible monster Hel—the three children of wicked Loki and Angurboda (carrier of anguish), a dreaded giantess. The mundane snake of the Norsemen, the monster created by Loki but fashioned by the constant putrid emanations from the body of the slain giant Ymir (the matter of our globe), and producing in its turn a constant emanation, which serves as a veil between heaven and earth, i.e., the Astral Light.

 

                       

Z  

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Z.—The 26th letter of the English alphabet. It stands as a numeral for 2,000, and with a dash over it thus, Z, equals 2,000,000. It is the seventh letter in the Hebrew alphabet—zayin, its symbol being a kind of Egyptian sceptre, a weapon. The zayin is equivalent to number seven. The number twenty-six is held most sacred by the Kabbalists, being equal to the numerical value of the letters of the Tetragrammaton

—thus
                                                                                he vau he yod

5 + 6 + 5 + ‘0 =26.

Zabulon (Heb.). The abode of God, the tenth Devachan in degree. Hence Zabulon, the tenth son of Jacob.

 

Zacchai (Heb.). One of the deity-names.

 

Zadok (Heb.). According to Josephus (see Antiquities, x., 8, § 6), Zadok was the first High-Priest Hierophant of Solomon’s High Temple. Masons connect him with some of their degrees.

 

Zalmat Gaguadi (Akkad.). Lit., “the dark race”, the first that fell into generation in the Babylonian legends. The Adamic race, one of the two principal races that existed at the time of the ‘ Fall of Man (hence our third Root-race), the other being called Sarku, or the “light race”.
(Secret Doctrine, II., 5.)

 

Zampun (Tib.). The sacred tree of life, having many mystic meanings.

 

Zarathustra (Zend). The great lawgiver, and the founder of the religion variously called Mazdaism, Magism, Parseeїsm, Fire-Worship, and Zoroastrianism. The age of the last Zoroaster (for it is a generic name) is not known, and perhaps for that very reason. Xanthus of Lydia, the earliest Greek writer who mentions this great lawgiver and religious reformer, places him about six hundred years before the Trojan War. But where is the historian who can now tell when the latter took place? Aristotle and also Eudoxus assign him a date of no less than 6,000 years before the days of Plato, and Aristotle was not one to make a statement without a good reason for it. Berosus makes him a king of Babylon some 2,200 years B.C.; but then, how can one tell what were the original figures of Berosus, before his MSS. passed through the hands of Eusebius, whose fingers were so deft at altering figures,

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whether in Egyptian synchronistic tables or in Chaldean chronology? Haug refers Zoroaster to at least 1,000 years B.C.; and Bunsen (God in History, Vol. I., Book iii., ch. vi., p. 276) finds that Zarathustra Spitama lived under the King Vistaspa about 3,000 years B.C., and describes him as “one of the mightiest intellects and one of the greatest men of all time”. It is with such exact dates in hand, and with the utterly extinct language of the Zend, whose teachings are rendered, probably in the most desultory manner, by the Pahlavi translation—a tongue, as shown by Darmsteter, which was itself growing obsolete so far back as the Sassanides— that our scholars and Orientalists have presumed to monopolise to themselves the right of assigning hypothetical dates for the age of the holy prophet Zurthust. But the Occult records claim to have the correct dates of each of the thirteen Zoroasters mentioned in the Dabistan. Their doctrines, and especially those of the last (divine) Zoroaster, spread from Bactria to the Medes; thence, under the name of Magism, incorporated by the Adept-Astronomers in Chaldea, they greatly influenced the mystic teachings of the Mosaic doctrines, even before, perhaps, they had culminated into what is now known as the modern religion of the Parsis. Like Manu and Vyâsa in India, Zarathustra is a generic name for great reformers and law-givers. The hierarchy began with the divine Zarathustra in the Vendîdâd, and ended with the great, but mortal man, bearing that title, and now lost to history. There were, as shown by the Dabistan, many Zoroasters or Zarathustras. As related in the Secret Doctrine, Vol. II., the last Zoroaster was the founder of the Fire-temple of Azareksh, many ages before the historical era. Had not Alexander destroyed so many sacred and precious works of the Mazdeans, truth and philosophy would have been more inclined to agree with history, in bestowing upon that Greek Vandal the title of “the Great”.

 

Zarpanitu (Akkad) The goddess who was the supposed mother, by Merodach, of Nebo, god of Wisdom. One of the female “Serpents of Wisdom”.

 

Zelator. The lowest degree in the exoteric Rosicrucian system; a kind of probationer or low chelâ.

 

Zend-Avesta (Pahl.). The general name for the sacred books of the Parsis, fire or sun worshippers, as they are ignorantly called. So little is understood of the grand doctrines which are still found in the various fragments that compose all that is now left of that collection of religious works, that Zoroastrianism is called indifferently Fire-worship, Mazdaism, or Magism, Dualism, Sun-worship, and what not. The Avesta has two parts as now collected together, the first portion containing the Vendîdâd, the Vispęrad and the Yasna; and the second portion, called the Khorda Avesta (Small Avesta), being composed of short prayers

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called Gâh, Nyâyish, etc. Zend means “a commentary or explanation”, and Avesta (from the old Persian âbashtâ, “the law”. (See Darmsteter.) As the translator of the Vendîdâd remarks in a foot note (see int. xxx.): “what it is customary to call ‘the Zend language’, ought to be named ‘the Avesta language’, the Zend being no language at all and if the word be used as the designation of one, it can be rightly applied only to the Pahlavi”. But then, the Pahlavi itself is only the language into which certain original portions of the Avesta are translated. What name should be given to the old Avesta language, and particularly to the “special dialect, older than the general language of the Avesta” (Darmst.), in which the five Ghthas in the Yasna are written? To this day the Orientalists are mute upon the subject. Why should not the Zend be of the same family, if not identical with the Zen-sar, meaning also the speech explaining the abstract symbol, or the “mystery language,” used by Initiates?

 

Zervana Akarna, or Zrvana Akarna (Pahl.). As translated from the Vendîdâd (Fargard xix), lit.,
“Boundless”, or “Limitless Time”, or “Duration in a Circle”. Mystically, the Beginningless and the Endless One Principle in Nature ; the Sat of the Vedânta and esoterically, the Universal Abstract Space synonymous with the Unknowable Deity. It is the Ain-Soph of the Zoroastrians, out of which radiates Ahura Mazda, the eternal Light or Logos, from which, in its turn, emanates everything that has being, existence and form.

 

Zeus (Gr.). The “Father of the gods”. Zeus-Zen is Ćther, there fore Jupiter was called Pater Ćther by some Latin races.

 

Zicu (Akkad.). Primordial matter, from Zi, spirit-substance, Zikum and Zigarum.

 

Zio (Scand.). Also Tyr and Tius, A god in the Eddas who conquers and chains Fenris-WoIf, when the latter threatened the gods themselves in Asgard, and lost a hand in the battle with the monster. He is the god of war, and was greatly worshipped by the ancient Germans.

 

Zipporah (Heb.). Lit., the shining, the radiant. In the Biblical allegory of Genesis, Zipporah is one of the seven daughters of Jethro, the Midianite priest, the Initiator of Moses, who meets Zipporah (or spiritual light) near the “well” (of occult knowledge) and marries her.

 

Zirat-banit (Chald.). The wife of the great, divine hero of the Assyrian tablets, Merodach. She is identified with the Succoth Benoth of the Bible.

 

Ziruph (Heb.). More properly Tziruph, a mode of divination by Temura, or permutation of letters, taught by the medićval Kabbalists. The school of Rabbis Abulafia and Gikatilla laid the most stress on the value of this process of the Practical Kabalah. [w.w.w.]

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Zodiac (Gr.). From the word zodion, a diminutive of zoon, animal. This word is used in a dual meaning; it may refer to the fixed and intellectual Zodiac, or to the movable and natural Zodiac. “In astronomy”, says Science, “it is an imaginary belt in the heavens 16° or 18° broad, through the middle of which passes the sun’s path (the ecliptic) .“It contains the twelve constellations which constitute the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and from which they are named. As the nature of the zodiacal light—that elongated, luminous, triangular figure which, lying almost in the ecliptic, with its base on the horizon and its apex at greater and smaller altitudes, is to be seen only during the morning and evening twilights—is entirely unknown to science, the origin and real significanće and occult meaning of the Zodiac were, and are still, a mystery, to all save the Initiates. The latter preserved their secrets well. Between the Chaldean star-gazer and the modern astrologer there lies to this day a wide gulf indeed; and they wander, in the words of Albumazar, “‘twixt the poles, and heavenly hinges, ‘mongst eccentricals, centres, concentricks, circles and epicycles”, with vain pretence to more than profane human skill. Yet, some of the astrologers, from Tycho Braire and Kepler of astrological memory, down to the modern Zadkiels and Raphaels, have contrived to make a wonderful science from such scanty occult materials as they have had in hand from Ptolemy downwards. (See “Astrology”.) To return to the astrological Zodiac proper, however, it is an imaginary circle passing round the earth in the plane of the equator, its first point being called Aries 0ş. It is divided into twelve equal parts called “Signs of the Zodiac”, each containing 30ş of space, and on it is measured the right ascension of celestial bodies. The movable or natural Zodiac is a succession of constellations forming a belt of in width, lying north and south of the plane of the ecliptic. The precession of the Equinoxes is caused by the “motion” of the sun through space, which makes the constellations appear to move forward against the order of the signs at the rate of 501/3 seconds per year. A simple calculation will show that at this rate the constellation Taurus (Heb. Aleph) was in the first sign of the Zodiac at the beginning of the Kali Yuga, and consequently the Equinoctial point fell therein. At this time, also, Leo was in the summer solstice, Scorpio in the autumnal Equinox, and Aquarius in the winter solstice ; and these facts form the astronomical key to half the religious mysteries of the world-—the Christian scheme included. The Zodiac was known in India and Egypt for incalculable ages, and the knowledge of the sages (magi) of these countries, with regard to the occult influence of the stars and heavenly bodies on our earth, was far greater than profane astronomy can ever hope to reach to. If, even now, when most of the secrets of the Asuramayas and the Zoroasters

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are lost, it is still amply shown that horoscopes and judiciary astrology are far from being based on fiction, and if such men as Kepler and even Sir Isaac Newton believed that stars and constellations influenced the destiny of our globe and its humanities, it requires no great stretch of faith to believe that men who were initiated into all the mysteries of nature, as well as into astronomy and astrology, knew precisely in what way nations and mankind, whole races as well as individuals, would be affected by the so-called “signs of the Zodiac”.

 

Zohak, or Azhi Dâhaka. The personification of the Evil One or Satan under the shape of a serpent, in the Zend Avesta. This serpent is three-headed, one of the heads being human. The Avesta describes it as dwelling in the region of Bauri or Babylonia. In reality Zohak is the allegorical symbol of the Assyrian dynasty, whose banner had on it the purple sign of the dragon. (Isis Unveiled, Vol. II., p. 486, n.)

 

Zohar, or Sohar. A compendium of Kabbalistic Theosophy, which shares with the Sepher Yetzirah the reputation of being the oldest extant treatise on the Hebrew esoteric religious doctrines. Tradition assigns its authorship to Rabbi Simeon ben Jochai, AD. 80, but modern criticism is inclined to believe that a very large portion of the volume is no older than 1280, when it was certainly edited and published by Rabbi Moses de Leon, of Guadalaxara in Spain. The reader should consult the references to these two names. In Lucifer (Vol. I., p. 141) will be found also notes on this subject : further discussion will be attainable in the works of Zunz, Graetz, Jost, Steinschneider, Frankel and Ginsburg. The work of Franck (in French) upon the Kabalah may be referred to with advantage. The truth seems to lie in a middle path, viz., that while Moses de Leon was the first to produce the volume as a whole, yet a large part of some of its constituent tracts consists of traditional dogmas and illustrations, which have come down from the time of Simeon ben Jochai and the Second Temple. There are portions of the doctrines of the Zohar which bear the impress of Chaldee thought and civilization, to which the Jewish race had been exposed in the Babylonish captivity. Yet on the other hand, to condemn the theory that it is ancient in its entirety, it is noticed that the Crusades are mentioned; that a quotation is made from a hymn by Ibn Gebirol, A,D. 1050; that the asserted author, Simeon ben Jochai, is spoken of as more eminent than Moses; that it mentions the vowel-points, which did not come into use until Rabbi Mocha (AD. 570) introduced them to fix the pronunciation of words as a help to his pupils, and lastly, that it mentions -a comet which can be proved by the evidence of the context to have appeared in 1264. There is no English translation of the Zohar as a whole, nor even a Latin one. The Hebrew editions obtainable are those of Mantua, 1558;

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Cremona, 1560; and Lublin, 1623. The work of Knorr von Rosenroth called Kabbala Denudata includes several of the treatises of the Zohar, but not all of them, both in Hebrew and Latin. MacGregor Mathers has published an English translation of three of these treatises, the Book of Concealed Mystery, the Greater and the Lesser Holy Assembly, and his work includes an original introduction to the subject.

The principal tracts included in the Zohar are :—“ The Hidden Midrash”, “The Mysteries of the Pentateuch”, “The Mansions and Abodes of Paradise and Gaihinnom”, “The Faithful Shepherd”, “The Secret of Secrets”, “Discourse of the Aged in Mishpatim” (punishment of souls), “The Januka or Discourse of the Young Man”, and “The Tosephta and Mathanithan”, which are additional essays on Emanation and the Sephiroth, in addition to the three important treatises mentioned above. In this storehouse may be found the origin of all the later developments of Kabbalistic teaching. [w.w.w.]

 

Zoroaster. Greek form of Zarathustra (q.v.).

 

Zumyad Yasht (Zend). Or Zamyad Yasht as some spell it. One of the preserved Mazdean fragments. It treats of metaphysical questions and beings, especially of the Amshaspends or the Amesha Spenta—the Dhyân Chohans of the Avesta books.

 

Zuńi. The name of a certain tribe of Western American Indians, a very ancient remnant of a still more ancient race. (Secret Doctrine, II., p. 628.)

 

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