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THE   

THEOSOPHICAL GLOSSARY

BY

H. P. BLAVATSKY

AUTHOR OF "ISIS UNVEILED", “THE SECRET DOCTRINE",  " THE KEY TO THEOSOPHY" 

L  M  N  O 

 

 

 

L   

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L.—The twelfth letter of the English Alphabet, and also of the Hebrew, where Lamed signifies an Ox-goad, the sign of a form of the god Mars, the generative deity. The letter is an equivalent of number 30. The Hebrew divine name corresponding to L, is Limmud, or Doctus.

 

Labarum (Lat.). The standard borne before the old Roman Emperors, having an eagle upon it as an emblem of sovereignty. It was a long lance with a cross staff at right angles. Constantine replaced the eagle by the christian monogram with the motto en touty nika which was later interpreted into In hoc signo vinces. As to the monogram, it was a combination of the letter X, Chi, and P, Rho, the initial syllable of Christos. But the Labarum had been an emblem of Etruria ages before Constantine and the Christian era. It was the sign also of Osiris and of Horus who is often represented with the long Latin cross, while the Greek pectoral cross is purely Egyptian. In his “Decline and Fall” Gibbon has exposed the Constantine imposture. The emperor, if he ever had a vision at all, must have seen the Olympian Jupiter, in whose faith he died.

 

Labro. A Roman saint, solemnly beatified a few years ago. His great holiness consisted in sitting at one of the gates of Rome night and day for forty years, and remaining unwashed through the whole of that time. He was eaten by vermin to his bones.

 

Labyrinth (Gr.). Egypt had the “celestial labyrinth” whereinto the souls of the departed plunged, and also its type on earth, the famous Labyrinth, a subterranean series of halls and passages with the most extraordinary windings. Herodotus describes it as consisting of 3,000 chambers, half below and half above ground. Even in his day strangers were not allowed into the subterranean portions of it as they contained the sepulchres of the kings who built it and other mysteries. The “Father of History” found the Labyrinth already almost in ruins, yet regarded it even in its state of dilapidation as far more marvellous than the pyramids.

 

Lactantius. A Church Father, who declared the heliocentric system a heretical doctrine, and that of the antipodes as a “fallacy invented by the devil”.

 

Ladakh. The upper valley of the Indus, inhabited by Tibetans, but belonging to the Rajah of Cashmere.

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Ladder. There are many “ladders” in the mystic philosophies and schemes, all of which were, and some still are, used in the respective mysteries of various nations. The Brahmanical Ladder symbolises the Seven Worlds or Sapta Loka; the Kabalistical Ladder, the seven lower Sephiroth; Jacob’s Ladder is spoken of in the Bible; the Mithraic Ladder is also the “Mysterious Ladder”. Then there are the Rosicrucian, the Scandinavian, the Borsippa Ladders, etc., etc., and finally the Theological Ladder which, according to Brother Kenneth Mackenzie, consists of the four cardinal and three theological virtues.

 

Lady of the Sycamore. A title of the Egyptian goddess Neїth, who is often represented as appearing in a tree and handing therefrom the fruit of the Tree of Life, as also the Water of Life, to her worshippers.

 

Laena (Lat.). A robe worn by the Roman Augurs with which they covered their heads while sitting in contemplation on the flight of birds.

 

Lahgash (Kab.). Secret speech; esoteric incantation; almost identical with the mystical meaning of Vâch.

 

Lajja (Sk.). “Modesty”; a demi-goddess, daughter of Daksha.

 

Lakh (Sk.). 100,000 of units, either in specie or anything else.

 

Lakshana (Sk.). The thirty-two bodily signs of a Buddha, marks by which he is recognised.

 

Lakshmi (Sk.) “Prosperity”, fortune; the Indian Venus, born of the churning of the ocean by the gods; goddess of beauty and wife of Vishnu.

 

Lalita Vistara (Sk.). A celebrated biography of Sakya Muni, the Lord Buddha, by Dharmarakcha, A.D. 308.

 

Lama (Tib.). Written “Clama”. The title, if correctly applied, belongs only to the priests of superior grades, those who can hold office as gurus in the monasteries. Unfortunately every common member of the gedun (clergy) calls himself or allows himself to be called “Lama”. A real Lama is an ordained and thrice ordained Gelong. Since the reform produced by Tsong-ka-pa, many abuses have again crept into the theocracy of the land. There are “Lama-astrologers”, the Chakhan, or common Tsikhan (from tsigan, “gypsy”), and Lama-soothsayers, even such as are allowed to marry and do not belong to the clergy at all. They are very scarce, however, in Eastern Tibet, belonging principally to Western Tibet and to sects which have nought to do with the Gelukpas (yellow caps). Unfortunately, Orientalists knowing next to nothing of the true state of affairs in Tibet, confuse the Choichong, of the Gurmakhayas Lamasery (Lhassa)—the Initiated Esotericists, with the Charlatans and Dugpas (sorcerers) of the Bhon sects. No wonder if—as Schagintweit says in his Buddhism in Tibet—“though the images of

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King Choichong (the “god of astrology”) are met with in most monasteries of Western Tibet and the Himalayas, my brothers never saw a Lama Choichong”. This is but natural. Neither the Choichong, nor the Kubilkhan (q.v.) overrun the country. As to the “God” or “King Choichong” he is no more a “god of astrology” than any other “Planetary” Dhyan Chohan.

 

Lamrin (Tib.). A sacred volume of precepts and rules, written by Tson-kha-pa, “for the advancement of knowledge”.

 

Land of the Eternal Sun. Tradition places it beyond the Arctic regions at the North Pole. It is “the land of the gods where the sun never sets”.

 

Lang-Shu (Chin.). The title of the translation of Nagarjuna’s work, the Ekasloka-Shastra.

 

Lanka (Sk.). The ancient name of the island now called Ceylon. It is also the name of a mountain in the South East of Ceylon, where, as tradition says, was a town peopled with demons named Lankapuri. It is described in the epic of the Ramayana as of gigantic extent and magnificence, “with seven broad moats and seven stupendous walls of stone and metal”. Its foundation is attributed to Visva-Karma, who built it for Kuvera, the king of the demons, from whom it was taken by Ravana, the ravisher of Sita. The Bhâgavat Purâna shows Lanka or Ceylon as primarily the summit of Mount Meru, which was broken off by Vayu, god of the wind, and hurled into the ocean. It has since become the seat of the Southern Buddhist Church, the Siamese Sect (headed at present by the High Priest Sumangala), the representation of the purest exoteric Buddhism on this side of the Himalayas.

 

Lanoo (Sk.). A disciple, the same as “chela”.

 

Lao-tze (Chin.). A great sage, saint and philosopher who preceded Confucius.

 

Lapis philosophorum (Lat.). The “Philosopher’s stone”; a mystic term in alchemy, having quite a different meaning from that usually attributed to it.

 

Lararium (Lat.). An apartment in the house of ancient Romans where the Lares or household gods were preserved, with other family relics.

 

Lares (Lat.). These were of three kinds: Lares familiares, the guardians and invisible presidents of the family circle; Lares parvi, small idols used for divinations and augury: and Lares prćstites, which were supposed to maintain order among the others. The Lares are the manes or ghosts of disembodied people. Apuleius says that the tumulary in scription, To the gods manes who lived, meant that the Soul had been trans-

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formed in a Lemure ; and adds that though “the human Soul is a demon that our languages may name genius”, and “is an immortal god though in a certain sense she is born at the same time as the man in whom she is, yet we may say that she dies in the same way that she is born”. Which means in plainer language that Lares and Lemures are simply the shells cast off by the EGO, the high spiritual and immortal Soul, whose shell, and also its astral reflection, the animal Soul, die, whereas the higher Soul prevails throughout eternity.

 

Larva (Lat.). The animal Soul. Larvć are the shadows of men that have lived and died.

 

Law of Retribution. (See “Karma”.)

 

Laya or Layam (Sk.). From the root Li “to dissolve, to disintegrate” a point of equilibrium (zero-point) in physics and chemistry. In occultism, that point where substance becomes homogeneous and is unable to act or differentiate.

 

Lebanon (Heb.). A range of mountains in Syria, with a few remnants of the gigantic cedar trees, a forest of which once crowned its summit. Tradition says that it is here, that the timber for King Solomon’s temple was obtained. (See “Druzes”.)

 

Lemuria. A modern term first used by some naturalists, and now adopted by Theosophists, to indicate a continent that, according to the Secret Doctrine of the East, preceded Atlantis. Its Eastern name would not reveal much to European ears.

 

Leon, Moses de. The name of a Jewish Rabbi in the Xlllth century, accused of having composed the Zohar which he gave out as the true work of Simeon Ben Jachaї. His full name is given in Myer’s Qabbalah as Rabbi Moses ben-Shem-Tob de Leon, of Spain, the same author proving very cleverly that de Leon was not the author of the Zohar. Few will say he was, but everyone must suspect Moses de Leon of perverting considerably the original Book of Splendour (Zohar). This sin, however, may be shared by him with the Medićval “Christian Kabalists” and by Knorr von Rosenroth especially. Surely, neither Rabbi Simeon, condemned to death by Titus, nor his son, Rabbi Eliezer, nor his Secretary Rabbi Abba, can be charged with introducing into the Zohar purely Christian dogmas and doctrines invented by the Church Fathers several centuries after the death of the former Rabbis. This would be stretching alleged divine prophecy a little too far.

 

Lévi, Éliphas. The real name of this learned Kabalist was Abbé Alphonse Louis Constant. Eliphas Lévi Zahed was the author of several works on philosophical magic. Member of the Fratres Lucis (Brothers of Light), he was also once upon a time a priest, an abbé of the Roman

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Catholic Church, which promptly proceeded to unfrock him, when he acquired fame as a Kabalist. He died some twenty years ago, leaving five famous works —Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie (1856); Histoire de la Magie (1860); La Clef des grands Mystčres (1861); Legendes et Symboles (1862); and La Science des Esprits (1865) ; besides some other works of minor importance. His style is extremely light and fascinating; but with a rather too strong characteristic of mockery and paradox in it to be the ideal of a serious Kabalist.

 

Leviathan. In biblical esotericism, Deity in its double manifestation of good and evil. The meaning may be found in the Zohar (II. 34b.) “Rabbi Shimeon said: The work of the beginning (of ‘creation’) the companions (candidates) study and understand it; but the little ones (the full or perfect Initiates) are those who understand the allusion to the work of the beginning by the Mystery of the Serpent of the Great Sea (to wit) Thanneen, Leviathan.” (See also Qabbalah, by I. Myer.)

 

Levânah (Heb.). The moon, as a planet and an astrological influence.
 

Lha (Tib.). Spirits of the highest spheres, whence the name of Lhassa, the residence of the Dalaї-Lama. The title of Lha is often given in Tibet to some Narjols (Saints and Yogi adepts) who have attained great occult powers.

 

Lhagpa (Tib.). Mercury, the planet.

 

Lhakang (Tib.). A temple; a crypt, especially a subterranean temple for mystic ceremonies.

 

Lhamayin (Tib.). Elemental sprites of the lower terrestrial plane. Popular fancy makes of them demons and devils.

 

Lif (Scand.). Lif and Lifthresir, the only two human beings who were allowed to be present at the “Renewal of the World”. Being “pure and innocent and free from sinful desires, they are permitted to enter the world where peace now reigns”. The Edda shows them hidden in Hoddmimir’s forest dreaming the dreams of childhood while the last conflict was taking place. These two creatures, and the allegory in which they take part, are allusions to the few nations of the Fourth Root Race, who, surviving the great submersion of their continent and the majority of their Race, passed into the Fifth and continued their ethnical evolution in our present Human Race.

 

Light, Brothers of. This is what the great authority on secret societies, Brother Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie IX., says of this Brotherhood. “A mystic order, Fratres Lucis, established in Florence in 1498. Among the members of this order were Pasqualis, Cagliostro, Swedenborg, St. Martin, Eliphaz Lévi, and many other eminent mystics. Its members were very much persecuted by the Inquisition. It is a small but compact body, the members being spread all over the world.”

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Lila (Sk)  Sport, literally; or pastime. In the orthodox Hindu Scriptures it is explained that “the acts of the divinity are lila ”, or sport.

 

Lilith (Heb.). By Jewish tradition a demon who was the first wife of Adam, before Eve was created: she is supposed to have a fatal influence on mothers and newly-born infants. LIL is night, and LILITH is also the owl: and in medićval works is a synonym of Lamia or female demon. [w.w.w.]

 

Lil-in (Heb.). The children of Lilith, and their descendants. “Lilith is the Mother of the Shedim and the Muquishim (the ensnarers)”. Every class of the Lil-ins, therefore, are devils in the demonology of the Jews. (See Zohar ii. 268a.)

 

Limbus Major (Lat.). A term used by Paracelsus to denote primordial (alchemical) matter; “Adam’s earth”.

 

Linga or Lingam (Sk.). A sign or a symbol of abstract creation. Force becomes the organ of procreation only on this earth. In India there are 12 great Lingams of Siva, some of which are on mountains and rocks, and also in temples. Such is the Kedâresa in the Himalaya, a huge and shapeless mass of rock. In its origin the Lingam had never the gross meaning connected with the phallus, an idea which is altogether of a later date. The symbol in India has the same meaning which it had in Egypt, which is simply that the creative or procreative Force is divine. It also denotes who was the dual Creator—male and female, Siva and his Sakti. The gross and immodest idea connected with the phallus is not Indian but Greek and pre-eminently Jewish. The Biblical Bethels were real priapic stones, the “ Beth-el” (phallus) wherein God dwells. The same symbol was concealed within the ark of the Covenant, the “Holy of Holies”. Therefore the “Lingam” even as a phallus is not “a symbol of Siva” only, but that of every “Creator” or creative god in every nation, including the Israelites and their “God of Abraham and Jacob”.

 

Linga Purâna (Sk.). A scripture of the Saivas or worshippers of Siva. Therein Maheswara, “the great Lord”, concealed in the Agni Linga explains the ethics of life—duty, virtue, self-sacrifice and finally liberation by and through ascetic life at the end of the Agni Kalpa (the Seventh Round). As Professor Wilson justly observed “the Spirit of the worship (phallic) is as little influenced by the character of the type as can well be imagined. There is nothing like the phallic orgies of antiquity; it is all mystical and spiritual.

 

Linga Sharîra (Sk.). The “body”, i.e., the aerial symbol of the body. This term designates the döppelganger or the “astral body” of man or animal. It is the eidolon of the Greeks, the vital and prototypal body; the

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reflection of the men of flesh. It is born before and dies or fades out, with the disappearance of the last atom of the body.

 

Lipi (Sk.) To write. See “Lipikas”in Vol. I. of the Secret Doctrine.

 

Lipikas (Sk.). The celestial recorders, the “Scribes”, those who record every word and deed, said or done by man while on this earth. As Occultism teaches, they are the agents of KARMA—the retributive Law.

 

Lobha (Sk.). Covetousness: cupidity, a son sprung from Brahmâ in an evil hour.

 

Lodur (Scand.). The second personage in the trinity of gods in the Eddas of the Norsemen; and the father of the twelve great gods. It is Lodur who endows the first man—made of the ash-tree (Ask), with blood and colour.

 

Logi (Scand.). Lit., “flame”. This giant with his sons and kindred, made themselves finally known as the authors of every cataclysm and conflagration in heaven or on earth, by letting mortals perceive them in the midst of flames. These giant-fiends were all enemies of man trying to destroy his work wherever they found it. A symbol of the cosmic elements.

 

Logia (Gr.). The secret discourses and teachings of Jesus contained in the Evangel of Matthew—in the original Hebrew, not the spurious Greek text we have—and preserved by the Ebionites and the Nazarenes in the library collected by Pamphilus, at Cćsarea. This “Evangel” called by many writers “the genuine Gospel of Matthew”, was used according to (St.) Jerome, by the Nazarenes and Ebionites of Beroea, Syria, in his own day (4th century). Like the Aporrheta or secret discourses, of the Mysteries, these Logia could only be understood with a key. Sent by the Bishops Chromatius and Heliodorus, Jerome, after having obtained permission, translated them, but found it “a difficult task” (truly so!) to reconcile the text of the “genuine” with that of the spurious Greek gospel he was acquainted with.
(See
Isis Unveiled II., 180 et seq.)

 

Logos (Gr.). The manifested deity with every nation and people; the outward expression, or the effect of the cause which is ever concealed. Thus, speech is the Logos of thought; hence it is aptly translated by the “Verbum” and “Word” in its metaphysical sense.

 

Lohitanga (Sk.). The planet, Mars.

 

Loka (Sk.). A region or circumscribed place. In metaphysics, a world or sphere or plane. The Purânas in India speak incessantly of seven and fourteen Lokas, above, and below our earth; of heavens and hells,

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Loka Chakshub (Sk.). The “Eye of the World”; a title of the Sun, Surya.

 

Loka Pâlas (Sk.). The supporters, rulers and guardians of the world. The deities (planetary gods) which preside over the eight cardinal points, among which are the Tchatur (Four) Maharajahs.

 

Loki (Scand.). The Scandinavian Evil Spirit exoterically. In esoteric philosophy “an opposing power” only because differentiating from primordial harmony. In the Edda, he is the father of the terrible Fenris Wolf, and of the Midgard Snake. By blood he is the brother of Odin, the good and valiant god; but in nature he is his opposite. Loki Odin is simply two in one. As Odin is, in one sense, vital heat, so is Loki the symbol of the passions produced by the intensity of the former.

 

Loreley. The German copy of the Scandinavian “Lake Maiden”. Undine is one of the names given to these maidens, who are known in exoteric Magic and Occultism as the Water-Elementals.

 

Lost Word (Masonic). It ought to stand as “lost words” and lost secrets, in general, for that which is termed the lost “Word” is no word at all, as in the case of the Ineffable Name (q.v.) The Royal Arch Degree in Masonry, has been “in search of it” since it was founded. But the “dead”—-especially those murdered—do not speak; and were even “the Widow’s Son” to come back to life “materialized”, he could hardly reveal that which never existed in the form in which it is now taught. The SHEMHAMPHORASH (the separated name, through the power of which according to his detractors, Jeshu Ben Pandira is said to have wrought his miracles, after stealing it from the Temple)—whether derived from the “self existent substance” of Tetragrammaton, or not, can never be a substitute, for the lost LOGOS of divine magic.

 

Lotus (Gr.). A most occult plant, sacred in Egypt, India and else where; called “the child of the Universe bearing the likeness of its mother in its bosom”. There was a time “when the world was a golden lotus” (padma) says the allegory. A great variety of these plants, from the majestic Indian lotus, down to the marsh-lotus (bird’s foot trefoil) and the Grecian “Dioscoridis”, is eaten at Crete and other islands. It is a species of nymphala, first introduced from India to Egypt to which it was-not indigenous. See the text of Archaic Symbolism in the Appendix Viii. “The Lotus, as a Universal Symbol”.

 

Lotus, Lord of the. A title applied to the various creative gods, as also to the Lords of the Universe of which this plant is the symbol. (“See Lotus”.)

 

Love Feasts, Agapae (Gr.). These banquets of charity held by the earliest Christians were founded at Rome by Clemens, in the reign of

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Domitian. Professor A. Kestner’s The Agapć or the Secret World Society (Wiltbund) of the Primitive Christians” (published 1819 at Jena) speaks of these Love Feasts as “having a hierarchical constitution, and a groundwork of Masonic symbolism and Mysteries” ; and shows a direct connection between the old Agapć and the Table Lodges or Banquets of the Freemasons. Having, however, exiled from their suppers the “holy kiss” and women, the banquets of the latter are rather “drinking” than “love” feasts. The early Agapć were certainly the same as the Phallica, which “were once as pure as the Love Feasts of early Christians” as Mr. Bonwick very justly remarks, “though like them rapidly degenerating into licentiousness”. (Eg. Bel. and Mod. Thought, p. 260.)

 

Lower Face or Lower Countenance (Kab.). A term applied to Microprosopus, as that of ”Higher Face” is to Macroprosopus. The two are identical with Long Face and Short Face.

 

Lubara (Chald.). The god of Pestilence and. Disease.

 

Lucifer (Lat.). The planet Venus, as the bright “Morning Star”. Before Milton, Lucifer had never been a name of the Devil. Quite the reverse, since the Christian Saviour is made to say of himself in Revelations (xvi. 22.) “I am . . . the bright morning star” or Lucifer. One of the early Popes of Rome bore that name; and there was even a Christian sect in the fourth century which was called the Luciferians.

 

Lully, Raymond. An alchemist, adept and philosopher, born in the 13th century, on the island of Majorca. It is claimed for him that, in a moment of need, he made for King Edward III. of England several millions of gold “rose nobles”, and thus helped him to carry on war victoriously. He founded several colleges for the study of Oriental languages, and Cardinal Ximenes was one of his patrons and held him in great esteem, as also Pope John XXI. He died in 1314, at a good old age. Literature has preserved many wild stories about Raymond Lully, which would form a most extraordinary romance. He was the elder son of the Seneshal of Majorca and inherited great wealth from his father.

 

Lunar Gods. Called in India the Fathers, “Pitris” or the lunar ancestors. They are subdivided, like the rest, into seven classes or Hierarchies, In Egypt although the moon received less worship than in Chaldea or India, still Isis stands as the representative of Luna-Lunus, “the celestial Hermaphrodite”. Strange enough while the modern connect the moon only with lunacy and generation, the ancient nations, who knew better, have, individually and collectively, connected their “wisdom gods” with it. Thus in Egypt the lunar gods are Thoth-

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Hermes and Chons; in India it is Budha, the Son of Soma, the moon; in Chaldea Nebo is the lunar god of Secret Wisdom, etc., etc. The wife of Thoth, Sifix, the lunar goddess, holds a pole with five rays or the five-pointed star, symbol of man, the Microcosm, in distinction from the Septenary Macrocosm. As in all theogonies a goddess precedes a god, on the principle most likely that the chick can hardly precede its egg, in Chaldea the moon was held as older and more venerable than the Sun, because, as they said, darkness precedes light at every periodical rebirth (or “creation”) of the universe. Osiris although connected with the Sun and a Solar god is, nevertheless, born on Mount Sinai, because Sin is the Chaldeo-Assyrian word for the moon; so was Dio-Nysos, god of Nyssi or Nisi, which latter appelation was that of Sinai in Egypt, where it was called Mount Nissa. The crescent is not—as proven by many writers—an ensign of the Turks, but was adopted by Christians for their symbol before the Mahommedans. For ages the crescent was the emblem of the Chaldean Astarte, the Egyptian Isis, and the Greek Diana, all of them Queens of Heaven, and finally became the emblem of Mary the Virgin. “The Greek Christian Empire of Constantinople held it as their palladium. Upon the conquest by the Turks, the Sultan adopted it . . . and since that, the crescent has been made to oppose the idea of the cross”. (Eg. Belief.)

 

Lupercalia (Lat.). Magnificent popular festivals celebrated in ancient Rome on February 15th in honour of the God Pan, during which the Luperci, the most ancient and respectable among the sacerdotal functionaries, sacrificed two goats and a dog, and two of the most illustrious youths were compelled to run about the city naked (except the loins) whipping all those whom they met. Pope Gelasius abolished the Lupercalia in 496, but substituted for them on the same day the procession of lighted candles.

 

Luxor (0cc.). A compound word from lux (light) and aur (fire), thus meaning the “Light of (divine) Fire.”

 

Luxor, Brotherhood of. A certain Brotherhood of mystics. Its name had far better never have been divulged, as it led a great number of well-meaning people into being deceived, and relieved of their money by a certain bogus Mystic Society speculators, born in Europe, only to be exposed and fly to America. The name is derived from the ancient Lookshur in Beloochistan, lying between Bela and Kedjee. The order is very ancient and the most secret of all. It is useless to repeat that its members disclaim all connection with the “H.B. of L.”, and the tutti quanti of commercial mystics, whether from Glasgow or Boston.

 

Lycanthropy (Gr.). Physiologically, a disease or mania, during which a person imagines he is a wolf, and acts as such. Occultly, it

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means the same as “were-wolf”, the psychological faculty of certain sorcerers to appear as wolves. Voltaire states that in the district of Jura, in two years between 1598 and 1600, over 600 lycanthropes were put to death by a too Christian judge. This does not mean that Shepherds accused of sorcery, and seen as wolves, had indeed the power of changing themselves physically into such; but simply that they had the hypnotizing power of making people (or those they regarded as enemies), believe they saw a wolf when there was none in fact. The exercise of such power is truly sorcery. “Demoniacal” possession is true at bottom, minus the devils of Christian theology. But this is no place for a long disquisition upon occult mysteries and magic powers.

 

                  

M  

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M—The thirteenth letter of the Hebrew and of the English alphabets, and the twenty-fourth of the Arabic. As a Roman numeral, this letter stands for 1,000, and with a dash on it (M) signifies one million. In the Hebrew alphabet Mem symbolized water, and as a numeral is equivalent to 40. The Sanskrit ma is equivalent to number 5, and is also connected with water through the sign of the Zodiac, called Makâra (q.v.). Moreover, in the Hebrew and Latin numerals the m,  stands “as the definite numeral for an indeterminate number”(Mackenzie’s Mason. Cyc.), and “the Hebrew sacred name of God app]ied to this letter is Meborach, Benedictus.” With the Esotericists the M is the symbol of the Higher Ego—Manas, Mind.

 

(Sk.). Lit., “five”. A name of Lakshmi.

 

Ma, Mut (Eg.). The goddess of the lower world, another form of Isis, as she is nature, the eternal mother. She was the sovereign and Ruler of the North wind, the precursor of the overflow of the Nile, and thus called “the opener of the nostrils of the living”. She is represented offering the ankh, or cross, emblem of physical life to her worshippers, and is called the “Lady of Heaven”.

 

Machagistia. Magic, as once taught in Persia and Chaldea, and raised in its occult practices into a religio-magianism. Plato, speaking of Machagistia, or Magianism, remarks that it is the purest form of the worship of things divine.

 

Macrocosm (Gr.). The “Great Universe” literally, or Kosmos.

 

Macroprosopus (Gr.). ‘A Kabalistic term, made of a compound Greek word: meaning the Vast or Great Countenance (See “Kabalistic Faces”); a title of Kether, the Crown, the highest Sephira. It is the name of the Universe, called Arikh-Anpin, the totality of that of which Microprosopus or Zauir-Anpin
“the lesser countenance”, is the part and antithesis. In its high or abstract metaphysical sense, Microprosopus is Adam Kadmon, the vehicle of Ain-Suph, and the crown of the Sephirothal Tree, though since Sephira and Adam Kadmon are in fact one under two aspects, it comes to the same thing. Interpretations are many, and they differ.

 

Madhasadana or Madhu-Sűdana (Sk.). “Slayer of Madhu” (a demon), a title of Krishna from his killing the latter.

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Mâdhava (Sk). (1) A name of Vishnu or Krishna; (2) The month of April ; (3) A title of Lakshmi
when written Madhavi.

 

Madhya (Sk.). Ten thousand billions.

 

Madhyama (Sk.). Used of something beginningless and endless. Thus Vâch (Sound, the female Logos, or the female counterpart of Brahmâ is said to exist in several states, one of which is that of Mâdhyama, which is equivalent to saying that Vâch is eternal in one sense “the Word (Vâch) was with God, and in God”, for the two are one.

 

Mâdhyamikas (Sk.). A sect mentioned in the Vishnu Purâna. Agreeably to the Orientalists, a
“Buddhist sect, which is an anachronism. It was probably at first a sect of Hindu atheists. A later school of that name, teaching a system of sophistic nihilism, that reduces every proposition into a thesis and its antithesis, and then denies both, has been started in Tibet and China. It adopts a few principles of Nâgârjuna, who was one of the founders of the esoteric Mahayâna systems, not their exoteric travesties. The allegory that regarded Nâgârjuna’s “Paramartha” as a gift from the Nâgas (Serpents) shows that he received his teachings from the secret school of adepts, and that the real tenets are therefore kept secret.

 

Maga (Sk.). The priests of the Sun, mentioned in the Vishnu Purâna. They are the later Magi of Chaldea and Iran, the forefathers of the modern Parsis.

 

Magadha (Sk.). An ancient country in India, under Buddhist Kings.

 

Mage, or Magian. From Mag or Maha. The word is the root of the word magician. The Maha-âtma (the great Soul or Spirit) in India had its priests in the pre-Vedic times. The Magians were priests of the fire-god; we find them among the Assyrians and Babylonians, as well as among the Persian fire-worshippers. The three Magi, also denominated kings, that are said to have made gifts of gold, incense and myrrh to the infant Jesus, were fire-worshippers like the rest, and astrologers ; for they saw his star. The high priest of the Parsis, at Surat, is called Mobed. Others derived the name from Megh; Meh-ab signifying some thing grand and noble. Zoroaster’s disciples were called Meghestom, according to Kleuker.

 

Magi (Lat.). The name of the ancient hereditary priests and learned adepts in Persia and Media, a word derived from Mâha great, which became later mog or mag, a priest in Pehlevi. Porphyry describes them (Abst. iv. 16) as “The learned men who are engaged among the Persians in the service of the Deity are called Magi”, and Suidas informs us that “among the Persians the lovers of wisdom (philalethai) are called Magi”

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The Zendavesta (ii. 171, 261) divides them into three degrees : (1) The Herbeds or “ Noviciates” ; (2) Mobeds or “ Masters” ; (3) Destur Mobeds, or Perfect Masters”. The Chaldees had similar colleges, as also the Egyptians, Destur Mobeds being identical with the Hierophants of the mysteries, as practised in Greece and Egypt.

 

Magic. The great “Science”. According to Deveria and other Orientalists, “magic was considered as a sacred science inseparable from religion” by the oldest and most civilized and learned nations. The Egyptians, for instance, were one of the most sincerely religious nations, as were and still are the Hindus. “Magic consists of, and is acquired by the worship of the gods”, said Plato. Could then a nation, which, owing to the irrefragable evidence of inscriptions and papyri, is proved to have firmly believed in magic for thousands of years, have been deceived for so long a time. And is it likely that generations upon generations of a learned and pious hierarchy, many among whom led lives of self-martyrdom, holiness and asceticism, would have gone on deceiving themselves and the people (or even only the latter) for the pleasure of perpetuating belief in “ miracles” ? Fanatics, we are told, will do anything to enforce belief in their god or idols. To this we reply: in such case, Brahmans and Egyptian Rekhget-amens (q.v.) or Hierophants would not have popularized belief in the power of man by magic practices to command the services of the gods: which gods, are in truth, but the occult powers or potencies of Nature, personified by the learned priests themselves, in which they reverenced only the attributes of the one unknown and nameless Principle. As Proclus the Platonist ably puts it : “Ancient priests, when they considered that there is a certain alliance and sympathy in natural things to each other, and of things manifest to occult powers, and discovered that all things subsist in all, fabricated a sacred science from this mutual sympathy and similarity......and applied for occult purposes, both celestial and terrene natures, by means of which, through a certain similitude, they deduced divine virtues into this inferior abode”. Magic is the science of communicating with and directing supernal, supramundane Potencies, as well as of commanding those of the lower spheres; a practical knowledge of the hidden mysteries of nature known to only the few, because they are so difficult to acquire, without falling into sins against nature. Ancient and medićval mystics divided magic into three classes—Theurgia, Goëtia and natural Magic. “Theurgia has long since been appropriated as the peculiar sphere of the theosophists and metaphysicians”, says Kenneth Mackenzie. Goëtia is black magic, and “natural (or white) magic has risen with healing in its wings to the proud position of an exact and progressive study”. The comments added by our late learned Brother

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are remarkable. “The realistic desires of modern times have contributed to bring magic into disrepute and ridicule. . . . Faith (in one’s own self) is an essential element in magic, and existed long before other ideas which presume its pre-existence. It is said that it takes a wise man to make a fool; and a man’s ideas must be exalted almost to madness, i.e., his brain susceptibilities must be increased far beyond the low, miserable status of modern civilization, before he can become a true magician; (for) a pursuit of this science implies a certain amount of isolation and an abnegation of Self ”. A very great isolation, certainly, the achievement of which constitutes a wonderful phenomenon, a miracle in itself. Withal magic is not something supernatural. As explained by Jamblichus, “they through the sacerdotal theurgy announce that they are able to ascend to more elevated and universal Essences, and to those that are established above fate, viz., to god and the demiurgus: neither employing matter, nor assuming any other things besides, except the observation of a sensible time”. Already some are beginning to recognise the existence of subtle powers and influences in nature of which they have hitherto known nought. But as Dr. Carter Blake truly remarks, “the nineteenth century is not that which has observed the genesis of new, nor the completion of old, methods of thought”; to which Mr. Bonwick adds that “if the ancients knew but little of our mode of investigations into the secrets of nature, we know still less of their mode of research”.

 

Magic, White, or “Beneficent Magic”, so-called, is divine magic, devoid of selfishness, love of power, of ambition, or lucre, and bent only on doing good to the world in general, and one’s neighbour in particular. The smallest attempt to use one’s abnormal powers for the gratification of self, makes of these powers sorcery or black magic.

 

Magic, Black. (Vide Supra.)

 

Magician. This term, once a title of renown and distinction, has come to he wholly perverted from its true meaning. Once the synonym of all that was honourable and reverent, of a possessor of learning and wisdom, it has become degraded into an epithet to designate- one who is a pretender and a juggler; a charlatan, in short, or one who has “sold his soul to the Evil One”, who misuses his knowledge, and employs it for low and dangerous uses, according to the teachings of the clergy, and a mass of superstitious fools who believe the magician a sorcerer and an “Enchanter”. The word is derived from Magh, Mah in Sanskrit Mâha—great; a man well versed in esoteric knowledge. (Isis Unveiled.)

 

Magna Mater (Lat.). “Great Mother”. A title given in days of old, to all the chief goddesses of the nations, such as Diana of Ephesus, Isis, Mauth, and many others.

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Magnes. An expression used by Paracelsus and the medićval Theosophists. It is the spirit of light, or Akâsa. A word much used by the medićval Alchemists.

 

Magnetic Masonry. Also called “Iatric” masonry. It is described as a Brotherhood of Healers (from iatrikę a Greek word meaning “the art of healing”), and is greatly used by the “Brothers of Light ”as Kenneth Mackenzie states in the Royal Masonic Cyclopedia. There appears to be a tradition in some secret Masonic works—so says Ragon at any rate, the great Masonic authority—to the effect that there was a Masonic degree called the Oracle of Cos, “instituted in the eighteenth century B.c., from the fact that Cos was the birthplace of Hippocrates”. The iatrikę was a distinct characteristic of the priests who took charge of the patients in the ancient Asclepia, the temples where the god Asclepios (Ćsculapius) was said to heal the sick and the lame.

 

Magnetism. A Force in nature and in man. When it is the former, it is an agent which gives rise to the various phenomena of attraction, of polarity, etc. When the latter, it becomes “animal” magnetism, in contradistinction to cosmic, and terrestrial magnetism.

 

Magnetism, Animal. While official science calls it a “supposed” agent, and utterly rejects its actuality, the teeming millions of antiquity and of the now living Asiatic nations, Occultists, Theosophists, Spiritualists, and Mystics of every kind and description proclaim it as a well established fact. Animal magnetism is a fluid, an emanation. Some people can emit it for curative purposes through their eyes and the tips of their fingers, while the rest of all creatures, mankind, animals and even every inanimate object, emanate it either as an aura, or a varying light, and that whether consciously or not. When acted upon by Contact: with a patient or by the will of a human operator it is called “Mesmerism” (q.v.).

 

Magnum Opus (Lat.). In Alchemy the final completion, the “Great Labour” or Grand Śuvre; the production of the “Philosopher’s Stone” and “Elixir of Life” which, though not by far the myth some sceptics would have it, has yet to be accepted symbolically, and is full of mystic meaning.

 

Magus (Lat.). in the New Testament it means a Sage, a wise man of the Chaldeans; it is in English often used for a Magician, any wonder-worker; in the Rosicrucian Society it is the title of the highest members, the IXth grade; the Supreme Magus is the Head of the Order in the “Outer”; the Magi of the “Inner” are unknown except to those of the VIIIth grade. [w.w.w.]

 

Mahâ Buddhi (Sk.). Mahat. The Intelligent Soul of the World.

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The seven Prakritis or seven “natures” or planes, are counted from Mahâbuddhi downwards.

 

Mahâ Chohan (Sk.). The chief of a spiritual Hierarchy, or of a school of Occultism; the head of the trans-Himalayan mystics.

 

Mahâ Deva (Sk.). Lit., “great god”; a title of Siva.

 

Mahâ Guru (Sk.). Lit., “great teacher”. The Initiator.

 

Mahâjwala (Sk.). A certain hell.

 

Mahâ Kâla (Sk.). “Great Time”. A name of Siva as the “Destroyer”, and of Vishnu as the “Preserver”.

 

Mahâ Kalpa (Sk.). The “great age”.

 

Mahâ Manvantara (Sk.). Lit., the great interludes between the “Manus”. The period of universal activity. Manvantara implying here simply a period of activity, as opposed to Pralaya, or rest—without reference to the length of the cycle.

 

Mahâ Mâyâ (Sk.). The great illusion of manifestation. This universe, and all in it in their mutual relation, is called the great Illusion or Mahâmâyâ It is also the usual title given to Gautama the Buddha’s Immaculate Mother—Mayâdęvi, or the “Great Mystery”, as she is called by the Mystics.

 

Mahâ Pralaya (Sk.). The opposite of Mahâmanvantara, literally “the great Dissolution”, the “Night” following the “Day of Brahmâ”. It is the great rest and sleep of all nature after a period of active manifestation; orthodox Christians would refer to it as the “Destruction of the World”.

 

Mahâ Parinibbâna Sutta (Pali.). One of the most authoritative of the Buddhist sacred writings.

 

Mahâ Purusha (Sk.). Supreme or Great Spirit. A title of Vishnu.

 

Mahâ Râjikâs (Sk.). A gana or class of gods 236 in number. Certain Forces in esoteric teachings.

 

Mahâ Sűnyata (Sk.). Space, or eternal law; the great void or chaos.

 

Mahâ Vidyâ (Sk.). The great esoteric science. The highest Initiates alone are in possession of this science, which embraces almost universal knowledge.

 

Mahâ Yogin (Sk.). The “great ascetic”. A title of Siva.

 

Mahâ Yuga (Sk.). The aggregate of four Yugas or ages, of 4,320,000 solar years; a “Day of Brahmâ”, in the Brahmanical system ; lit., “the great age”.

 

Mahâbhârata (Sk.). Lit., the “great war”; the celebrated epic poem of India (probably the longest poem in the world) which includes both the Ramayana and the Bhagavad Gîtâ “the Song Celestial”. No two

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Orientalists agree as to its date. But it is undeniably extremely ancient.

 

Mahâbhâratian period. According to the best Hindu Commentators and Swami Dayanand Saraswati, 5,000 years B.C.

 

Mahâbhashya (Sk.). The great commentary on Pânini’s grammar by Patanjali.

 

Mahâbhautic (Sk.). Belonging to the Macrocosmic principles.

 

Mahâbhutas (Sk.). Gross elementary principles of matter.

 

Mahârâjahs, The Four (Sk.). The four great Karmic deities with the Northern Buddhists placed at the four cardinal points to watch mankind.

 

Mahar Loka (Sk.). A region wherein dwell the Munis or “Saints” during Pralaya; according to the Purânic accounts. It is the usual abode of Bhrigâ, a Prajâpati (Progenitor) and a Rishi, one of the seven who are said to be co-existent with Brahmâ.

 

Mahâsura (Sk.). The great Asura; exoterically—Satan, esoterically—the great god.

 

Mahat (Sk.). Lit., “The great one”. The first principle of Universal Intelligence and Consciousness. In the Purânic philosophy the first product of root-nature or Pradhâna (the same as Mulaprakriti); the producer of Manas the thinking principle, and of Ahankâra, egotism or the feeling of “I am I” (in the lower Manas).

 

Mahâtma. Lit., “great soul”. An adept of the highest order. Exalted beings who, having attained to the mastery over their lower principles are thus living unimpeded by the “man of flesh”, and are in possession of knowledge and power commensurate with the stage they have reached in their spiritual evolution. Called in Pali Rahats and Arhats.

 

Mâhâtmya (Sk.). “Magnanimity”, a legend of a shrine, or any holy place.

 

Mahatowarat (Sk.). Used of Parabrahm; greater than the greatest spheres.

 

Mahattattwa (Sk). The first of the seven creations called respectively in the Purânas—Mahattattwa, Chűta, Indriya, Mukhya, Tiryaksrotas, Urdhwasrotas and Arvaksrotas.

 

Mahoraga (Sk.). Mahâ uraga, “great serpent”——Sesha or any others.

 

Mahavanso (Pali.). A Buddhist historical work written by Bhikshu Mohânâma, the uncle of King Dhatusma. An authority on the history of Buddhism and its spread in the island of Ceylon.

 

Mahayâna (Pal.). A school; lit., “the great vehicle”. A mystical

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system founded by Nâgârjuna. Its books were written in the second century B.C.

 

Maitreya Buddha (Sk.). The same as the Kalki Avatar of Vishnu (the “White Horse” Avatar),
and of Sosiosh and other Messiahs. The only difference lies in the dates of their appearances. Thus,
while Vishnu is expected to appear on his white horse at the end of the present Kali Yuga age “for  the final destruction of the wicked, the renovation of creation and the restoration of purity”, Maitreya is expected earlier. Exoteric or popular teaching making slight variations on the esoteric doctrine states
that Sakyamuni (Gautama Buddha) visited him in Tushita (a celestial abode) and commissioned him to issue thence on earth as his successor at the expiration of five thousand years after his (Buddha’s) death. This would be in less than 3,000 years hence. Esoteric philosophy teaches that the next Buddha will appear during the seventh (sub) race of this Round. The fact is that Maitreya was a follower of Buddha,
a well-known Arhat, though not his direct disciple, and that he was the founder of an esoteric philosophical school. As shown by Eitel (Sanskrit-Chinese Dict.), “statues were erected in his honour as early as
B.C. 350”.

 

Makâra (Sk.). “The Crocodile.” In Europe the same as Capricorn; the tenth sign of the Zodiac. Esoterically, a mystic class of devas. With the Hindus, the vehicle of Varuna, the water-god.

 

Makâra Ketu (Sk.). A name of Kâma, the Hindu god of love and desire.

 

Makâram or Panchakaram (Sk.). In occult symbology a pentagon, the five-pointed star, the five limbs, or extremities, of man. Very mystical.

 

Makâras (Sk.). The five M’s of the Tantrikas. (See “Tantra”).

 

Malachim (Heb.). The messengers or angels.

 

Malkuth (Heb.). The Kingdom, the tenth Sephira, corresponding to the final H (hé) of the Tetragrammaton or IHVH. It is the Inferior Mother, the Bride of the Microprosopus (q.v.); also called the “Queen” It is, in one sense, the Shekinah. [w.w.w.]

 

Mamitu (Chald.). The goddess of Fate. A kind of Nemesis.

 

Manas (Sk.). Lit., “the mind”, the mental faculty which makes of man an intelligent and moral
being, and distinguishes him from the mere animal; a synonym of Mahat. Esoterically, however, it
means, when unqualified, the Higher EGO, or the sentient reincarnating Principle in man. When qualified it is called by Theosophists Buddhi-Manas or the Spiritual Soul in contradistinction to its human reflection—Kâma-Manas.

 

Manas, Kâma (Sk.). Lit., “the mind of desire.” With the Buddhists it is the sixth of the Chadâyatana (q.v.), or the six organs of

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knowledge, hence the highest of these, synthesized by the seventh called Klichta, the spiritual perception of that which defiles this (lower) Manas, or the “Human-animal Soul”, as the Occultists term it. While the Higher Manas or the Ego is directly related to Vijnâna (the 10th of the 12 Nidânas)—which is the perfect knowledge of all forms of knowledge, whether relating to object or subject in the nidânic concatenation of causes and effects; the lower, the Kâma Manas is but one of the Indriya or organs (roots) of Sense. Very little can be said of the dual Manas here, as the doctrine that treats of it, is correctly stated only in esoteric works. Its mention can thus be only very superficial.

 

Manas Sanyama (Sk.). Perfect concentration of the mind, and control over it, during Yoga practices.

 

Manas Taijasi (Sk.). Lit., the “radiant” Manas; a state of the Higher Ego, which only high metaphysicians are able to realize and comprehend.

 

Mânasa or Manaswin (Sk.). “The efflux of the divine mind,” and explained as meaning that this efflux signifies the manasa or divine sons of Brahmâ-Virâj. Nilakantha who is the authority for this statement, further explains the term “manasa” by manomâtrasarira. These Manasa are the Arupa or incorporeal sons of the Prajâpati Virâj, in another version. But as Arjuna Misra identifies Virâj with Brahmâ, and as Brahmâ is Mahat, the universal mind, the exoteric blind becomes plain. The Pitris are identical with the Kumâra, the Vairaja, the Manasa-Putra (mind sons), and are finally identified with the human “Egos”.

 

Mânasa Dhyânis (Sk.). The highest Pitris in the Purânas; the Agnishwatthas, or Solar Ancestors of Man, those who made of Man a rational being, by incarnating in the senseless forms of semi-ethereal flesh of the men of the third race. (See Vol. II. of Secret Doctrine.)

 

Mânasas (Sk.). Those who endowed humanity with manas or intelligence, the immortal EGOS in men. (See “Manas”.)

 

Manasasarovara (Sk.). Phonetically pronounced Mansoravara. A sacred lake in Tibet, in the Himalayas, also called Anavatapta. Manasasarovara is the name of the tutelary deity of that lake and, according to popular folk-lore, is said to be a nâga, a “serpent”. This, translated esoterically, means a great adept, a sage. The lake is a great place of yearly pilgrimage for the Hindus, as the Vedas are claimed to have been written on its shores.

 

Mânava (Sk.). A land of ancient India; a Kalpa or Cycle. The name of a weapon used by Râma; meaning  of “Manu” as,―
 

Mânava Dharma Shâstra—is the ancient code of law of, or by Manu.
 

Mandala (Sk.). A circle; also the ten divisions of the Vedas.

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Mandara (Sk.). The mountain used by the gods as a stick to churn the ocean of milk in the Purânas.

 

Mandâkinî (Sk.). The heavenly Ganga or Ganges.

 

Mandragora (Gr.). A plant whose root has the human form. In Occultism it is used by black magicians for various illicit objects, and some of the “left-hand” Occultists make homunculi with it. It is commonly called mandrake, and is supposed to cry out when pulled out of the ground.

 

Manes or Manus (Lat.). Benevolent “gods”, i.e., “spooks” of the lower world (Kâmaloka); the deified shades of the dead—of the ancient profane, and the “materialized”ghosts of the modern Spiritualists, believed to be the souls of the departed, whereas, in truth, they are only their empty shells, or images.

 

Manichćans (Lat.). A sect of the third century which believed in two eternal principles of good and evil; the former furnishing mankind with souls, and the latter with bodies. This sect was founded by a certain half-Christian mystic named Mani, who gave himself out as the expected “Comforter”, the Messiah and Christ. Many centuries later, after the sect was dead, a Brotherhood arose, calling itself the “Manichees”, of a masonic character with several degrees of initiation. Their ideas were Kabalistic, but were misunderstood.

 

Mano (Gnost.). The Lord of Light. Rex Lucis, in the Codex Nazarćus. He is the Second “Life” of the second or manifested trinity “the heavenly life and light, and older than the architect of heaven and earth” (Cod. Naz., Vol. I. p. 145). These trinities are as follows. The Supreme Lord of splendour and of light, luminous and refulgent, before which no other existed, is called Corona (the crown); Lord Ferho, the unrevealed life which existed in the former from eternity; and Lord Jordan—the spirit, the living water of grace (Ibid. II pp. 45-51). He is the one through whom alone we can be saved. These three constitute the trinity in abscondito. The second trinity is composed of the three lives. The first is the similitude of Lord Ferho, through whom he has proceeded forth; and the second Ferho is the King of Light—MANO. The second life is Ish Amon (Pleroma), the vase of election, containing the visible thought of the Jordanus Maximus—the type (or its intelligible reflection), the prototype of the living water, who is the “spiritual Jordan”. (Ibid. II., p. 211.) The third life, which is produced by the other two, is ABATUR (Ab, the Parent or Father). This is the mysterious and decrepit “Aged of the Aged”, the Ancient “Senem sui obtegentem et grandćvum mundi.” This latter third Life is the Father of the Demiurge Fetahil, the Creator of the world, whom the Ophites call llda-Baoth (q.v.), though Fetahil is the only-begotten one, the reflection of the Father, Abatur, who begets him

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by looking into the “dark water”. Sophia Achamoth also begets her Son Ilda-Baoth the Demiurge, by looking into the chaos of matter. But the Lord Mano, “the Lord of loftiness, the Lord of all genii”, is higher than the Father, in this kabalistic Codex—one is purely spiritual, the other material. So, for instance, while Abatur’s “only-begotten” one is the genius Fetahil, the Creator of the physical world, Lord Mano, the “Lord of Celsitude”, who is the son of Him, who is “the Father of all who preach the Gospel”, produces also an “only-begotten” one, the Lord Lehdaio, “a just Lord”. He is the Christos, the anointed, who pours out the “grace” of the Invisible Jordan, the Spirit of the Highest Crown. (See for further information Isis Unveiled. Vol. II., pp. 227, et. seq.)

 

Manodhâtu (Sk.). Lit., the “World of the mind”, meaning not only all our mental faculties, but also one of the divisions of the plane of mind. Each human being has his Manodhatu or plane of thought
proportionate with the degree of his intellect and his mental faculties, beyond which he can go only by studying and developing his higher spiritual faculties in one of the higher spheres of thought.

 

Manomaya Kosha (Sk.). A Vedantic term, meaning the Sheath (Kosha) of the Manomaya, an equivalent for fourth and fifth “principles” in man. In esoteric philosophy this “Kosha” corresponds to the dual Manas.

 

Manticism, or Mantic Frenzy. During this state was developed the gift of prophecy. The two words are nearly synonymous. One was as honoured as the other. Pythagoras and Plato held it in high esteem, and Socrates advised his disciples to study Manticism. The Church Fathers, who condemned so severely the mantic frenzy in Pagan priests and Pythić, were not above applying it to their own uses. The Montanists, who took their name from Montanus, a bishop of Phrygia, who was considered divinely inspired, contended with the mavnteiz (manteis) or prophets. “Tertullian, Augustine, and the martyrs of Carthage, were of the number”, says the author of Prophecy, Ancient and Modern. “The Montanists seem to have resembled the Bacchantes in the wild enthusiasm that characterized their orgies,” he adds. There is a diversity of opinion as to the origin of the word Manticism. There was the famous Mantis the Seer, in the days of Melampus and Prśtus King of Argos; and there was Manto, the daughter of the prophet of Thebes, herself a prophetess. Cicero describes prophecy and mantic frenzy, by saying, that “in the inner recesses of the mind is divine prophecy hidden and confined, a divine impulse, which when it burns more vividly is called furor”, frenzy. (Isis Unveiled.)

 

Mantra period (Sk.). One of the four periods into which Vedic literature has been divided.

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 Mantra Shâstra (Sk.). Brahmanical writings on the occult science of incantations.

                                                                                           

Mantra Tantra Shâstras (Sk.). Works on incantations, but specially on magic.

 

Mantras (Sk.). Verses from the Vedic works, used as incantations and charms. By Mantras are meant all those portions of the Vedas which are distinct from the Brahmanas, or their interpretation.

 

Mantrika Sakti (Sk.). The power, or the occult potency of mystic words, sounds, numbers or letters in these Mantras.

 

Manjusri (Tib.). The God of Wisdom. In Esoteric philosophy a certain Dhyan Chohan.

 

Manu (Sk.). The great Indian legislator. The name comes from the Sanskrit root man “to think”—mankind really, but stands for Swâyambhuva, the first of the Manus, who started from Swâyambhu, “the self-existent” hence the Logos, and the progenitor of mankind. Manu is the first Legislator, almost a Divine Being.

 

Manu Swâyambhuva (Sk). The heavenly man. Adam-Kadmon, the synthesis of the fourteen Manus.

 

Manus (Sk.). The fourteen Manus are the patrons or guardians of the race cycles in a Manvantara, or Day of Brahmâ. The primeval Manus are seven, they become fourteen in the Purânas.

 

Manushi or Manushi Buddhas (Sk.). Human Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, or incarnated Dhyan Chohans.

 

Manvantara (Sk.). A period of manifestation, as opposed to Pralaya (dissolution, or rest), applied to various cycles, especially to a Day of Brahmâ, 4,320,000,000 Solar years—and to the reign of one Manu— 308,448,000. (See Vol. II. of the Secret Doctrine, p. 68 et. seq.) Lit., Manuantara—between Manus.

 

Maquom (Chald.) “A secret place” in the phraseology of the Zohar, a concealed spot, whether referring to a sacred shrine in a temple, to the “Womb of the World”, or the human womb. A Kabalistic term.

 

Mâra (Sk.). The god of Temptation, the Seducer who tried to turn away Buddha from his PATH. He is called the “Destroyer” and “Death” (of the Soul). One of the names of Kâma, God of love.

 

Marabut. A Mahometan pilgrim who has been to Mekka, a saint. After his death his body is placed in an open sepulchre built above ground, like other buildings, but in the middle of the streets and public places of populated cities. Placed inside the small and only room of the tomb (and several such public sarcophagi of brick and mortar may be seen to this day in the streets and squares of Cairo), the devotion of the way farers keeps a lamp ever burning at his head. The tombs of some of

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these marabuts are very famous for the miracles they are alleged to perform.

 

Marcionites. An ancient Gnostic Sect founded by Marcion who was a devout Christian as long as no dogma of human creation came to mar the purely transcendental, and metaphysical concepts, and the original beliefs of the early Christians. Such primitive beliefs were those of Marcion. He denied the historical facts (as now found in the Gospels) of Christ’s birth, incarnation and passion, and also the resurrection of the body of Jesus, maintaining that such statements were simply the carnalization of metaphysical allegories and symbolism, and a degradation of the true spiritual idea. Along with all the other Gnostics, Marcion accused the “Church Fathers”, as Irenćus himself complains, of “framing their (Christian) doctrine according to the capacity of their hearers, fabling blind things for the blind, according to their blindness; for the dull, according to their dulness: for those in error, according to their errors.”

 

Mârga (Sk.). “The “Path”, The Ashthânga mârga, the “holy” or sacred path is the one that leads to Nirvâna. The eight-fold path has grown out of the seven-fold path, by the addition of the (now) first of the eight Marga; i.e., “the possession of orthodox views”; with which a real Yogâcharya would have nothing to do.

 

Mârîchi (Sk.). One of the “mind-born” sons of Brahmâ in the Purânas. Brahmans make of him the personified light, the parent of Sűrya, the Sun and the direct ancestor of Mahâkâsyapa. The Northern Buddhists of the Yogachârya School, see in Mârîchi Deva, a Bodhisattva, while Chinese Buddhists (especially the Tauists), have made of this conception the Queen of Heaven, the goddess of light, ruler of the sun and moon. With the pious but illiterate Buddhists, her magic formula “Om Mârîchi svâha”
is very powerful. Speaking of Mârîchi, Eitel mentions “Georgi, who explains the name as a ‘Chinese transcription of the name of the holy Virgin Mary’” (!!).  As Mârîchi is the chief of the Maruts and one of the seven primitive Rishis, the supposed derivation does seem a little far fetched.

 

Mârishâ (Sk.). The daughter of the Sage Kanda and Pramlochâ, the Apsara-demon from Indra’s heaven. She was the mother of Daksha. An allegory referring to the Mystery of the Second and Third human Races.

 

Martinists. A Society in France, founded by a great mystic called the Marquis de St. Martin, a disciple of Martinez Pasqualis. It was first established at Lyons as a kind of occult Masonic Society, its members believing in the possibility of communicating with Planetary

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Spirits and minor Gods and genii of the ultramundane Spheres. Louis Claude de St. Martin, born in 1743, had commenced life as a brilliant officer in the army, but left it to devote himself to study and the belles lettres, ending his career by becoming an ardent Theosophist and a disciple of Jacob Boehmen. He tried to bring back Masonry to its primeval character of Occultism and Theurgy, but failed. He first made his “Rectified Rite” to consist of ten degrees, but these were brought down owing to the study of the original Masonic orders—to seven. Masons complain that he introduced certain ideas and adopted rites “at variance with the archćological history of Masonry”; but so did Cagliostro and St Germain before him, as all those who knew well the origin of Free masonry.

 

Mârttanda, (Sk.). The Vedic name of the Sun.

 

Mârut Jivas (Sk.). The monads of Adepts who have attained the final liberation, but prefer to
re-incarnate on earth for the sake of Humanity. Not to be confused, however, with the Nirmânakâyas, who are far higher.

 

Mâruts (Sk.). With the Orientalists Storm-Gods, but in the Veda something very mystical. In the esoteric teachings as they incarnate in every round, they are simply identical with some of the Agnishwatta Pitris, the Human intelligent Egos. Hence the allegory of Siva transforming the lumps of flesh into boys, and calling them Maruts, to show senseless men transformed by becoming the Vehicles of the Pitris or Fire Maruts, and thus rational beings.

 

Masben ... (Chald.). A Masonic term meaning “the Sun in putrefaction”. Has a direct reference—perhaps forgotten by the Masons—to their “Word at Low Breath”.

 

Mash-Mak. By tradition an Atlantean word of the fourth Race, to denote a mysterious Cosmic fire, or rather Force, which was said to be able to pulverize in a second whole cities and disintegrate the world.

 

Masorah (Heb.). The name is especially applied to a collection of notes, explanatory, grammatical and critical, which are found on the margin of ancient Hebrew MSS., or scrolls of the Old Testament. The Masoretes were also called Melchites.

 

Masoretic Points, or Vowels (Heb.). Or, as the system is now called, Masóra from Massoreh or Massoreth, “tradition”, and Mâsar, to “hand down”. The Rabbins who busied themselves with the Masorah, hence called Masorites, were also the inventors of the Masoretic points, which are supposed to give the vowelless words of the Scriptures their true pronunciation, by the addition of points representing vowels to the consonants. This was the invention of the learned and cunning Rabbins of the School of Tiberias (in the ninth century of our era), who,

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by doing so, have put an entirely new construction on the chief words and names in the Books of Moses, and made thereby confusion still more confounded. The truth is, that this scheme has only added additional blinds to those already existing in the Pentateuch and other works.

 

Mastaba (Eg.). The upper portion of an Egyptian tomb, which, say the Egyptologists, consisted always of three parts: namely (1) the Mastaba or memorial chapel above ground, (2) a Pit from twenty to ninety feet in depth, which led by a passage, to (3) the Burial Chamber, where stood the Sarcophagus, containing the mummy sleeping its sleep of long ages. Once the latter interred, the pit was filled up and the entrance to it concealed. Thus say the Orientalists, who divide the last resting place of the mummy on almost the same principles as theologians do man—into body, soul, and spirit or mind. The fact is, that these tombs of the ancients were symbolical like the rest of their sacred edifices, and that this symbology points directly to the septenary division of man. But in death the order is reversed; and while the Mastaba with its scenes of daily life painted on the walls, its table of offerings, to the Larva, the ghost, or “Linga Sarira”, was a memorial raised to the two Principles and Life which had quitted that which was a lower trio on earth; the Pit, the Passage, the Burial Chambers and the mummy in the Sarcophagus, were the objective symbols raised to the two perishable “principles”, the personal mind and Kama, and the three imperishable, the higher Triad, now merged into one. This “One” was the Spirit of the Blessed now resting in the Happy Circle of Aanroo.

 

Matari Svan (Sk.). An ćrial being shown in Rig-Veda bringing down agni or fire to the Bhrigus; who are called “The Consumers”, and are described by the Orientalists as “a class of mythical beings who belonged to the middle or ćrial class of gods”. In Occultism the Bhrigus are simply the “Salamanders” of the Rosicrucians and Kabalists.

 

Materializations. In Spiritualism the word signifies the objective appearance of the so-called “Spirits” of the dead, who reclothe themselves occasionally in matter; i.e., they form for themselves out of the materials at hand, which are found in the atmosphere and the emanations of those present, a temporary body hearing the human likeness of the defunct as he appeared, when alive. Theosophists accept the phenomenon of “materialization”; but they reject the theory that it is produced by “ Spirits”, i.e., the immortal principles of the disembodied persons. Theosophists hold that when the phenomenon is genuine—and it is a fact of rarer occurrence than is generally believed—it is produced by the larvć, the eidola or Kamalokic “ghosts” of dead personalities. (See

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“Kâmadhâtu”, “Kâmaloka” and “Kâmarupa”.) As Kâmaloka is on the earth plane and differs from its degree of materiality only in the degree of its plane of consciousness, for which reason it is concealed from our normal sight, the occasional apparition of such shells is as natural as that of electric balls and other atmospheric phenomena. Electricity as a fluid, or atomic matter (for Theosophists hold with Maxwell that it is atomic), though invisible, is ever present in the air, and manifests under various shapes, but only when certain conditions are there to “materialize” the fluid, when it passes from its own on to our plane and makes itself objective. Similarly with the eidola of the dead. They are present, around us, but being on another plane do not see us any more than we see them. But whenever the strong desires of living men and the conditions furnished by the abnormal constitutions of mediums are combined together, these eidola are drawn—nay, pulled down from their plane on to ours and made objective. This is Necromancy ; it does no good to the dead, and great harm to the living, in addition to the fact that it interferes with a law of nature. The occasional materialization of the “astral bodies” or doubles of living persons is quite another matter. These “astrals” are often mistaken for the apparitions of the dead, since, chameleon-like, our own “Elementaries”, along with those of the disembodied and cosmic Elementals, will often assume the appearance of those images which are strongest in our thoughts. In short, at the so-called “materialization” seances it is those present and the medium, who create the peculiar likeness of the apparitions. Independent “apparitions” belong to another kind of psychic phenomena. Materializations are also called “form-manifestations” and “portrait statues”. To call them materialized spirits is inadmissible, for they are not spirits but animated portrait-statues, indeed.

 

Mathadhipatis (Sk.). Heads of various religious Brotherhoods in India, High Priests in Monasteries.

 

Matrâ (Sk.). The shortest period of time as applied to the duration of sounds, equal to the twinkling of the eye.

 

Mâtrâ (Sk.). The quantity of a Sanskrit Syllable.

 

Mâtripadma (Sk.). The mother-lotus; the womb of Nature.

 

Mâtris (Sk.). “Mothers,” the divine mothers. Their number is seven. They are the female aspects and powers of the gods.

 

Matronethah (Heb. Kab.). Identical with Malcuth, the tenth Sephira. Lit., Matrona is the “inferior mother”.

 

Matsya (Sk.). “A fish.” Matsya avatar was one of the earliest incarnations of Vishnu.

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Matsya Purâna (Sk.). The Scripture or Purâna which treats of that incarnation.

 

Mâyâ (Sk.). Illusion ; the cosmic power which renders phenomenal existence and the perceptions thereof possible. In Hindu philosophy that alone which is changeless and eternal is called reality ; all that which is subject to change through decay and differentiation and which has therefore a begining and an end is regarded as mâyâ—illusion.

 

Mâyâ Moha (Sk.). An illusive form assumed by Vishnu in order to deceive ascetic Daityas who were becoming too holy through austerities and hence too dangerous in power, as says the Vishnu Purâna.

 

Mâyâvi Rűpa (Sk.). “Illusive form”; the “double” in esoteric philosophy; döppelganger or perisprit in German and French.

 

Mayavic Upadhi (Sk.). The covering of illusion, phenomenal appearance.

 

Mazdeans. From (Ahura) Mazda. (See Spiegel’s Yasna, xl.) They were the ancient Persian nobles who worshipped Ormazd, and, rejecting images, inspired the Jews with the same horror for every concrete representation of the Deity. They seem in Herodotus’ time to have been superseded by the Magian religionists. The Parsis and Gebers, (geberim, mighty men, of Genesis vi. and x. 8) appear to be Magian religionists.

 

Mazdiasnian. Zoroastrian; lit., “worshipping god”.

 

M’bul (Heb.). The “waters of the flood”. Esoterically, the periodical outpourings of astral impurities on to the earth; periods of psychic crimes and iniquities, or of regular moral cataclysms.

 

Medinî(Sk.). The earth; so-called from the marrow (medas) of two demons. These monsters springing from the ear of the sleeping Vishnu, were preparing to kill Brahmâ who was lying on the lotus which grows from Vishnu’s navel, when the god of Preservation awoke and killed them. Their bodies being thrown into the sea produced such a quantity of fat and marrow that Nârâyana used it to form the earth with.

 

Megacosm (Gr.). The world of the Astral light, or as explained by a puzzled Mason “a great world, not identical with Macrocosm, the Universe, but something between it and Microcosm, the little world” or man.

 

Mehen (Eg.). In popular myths, the great serpent which represents the lower atmosphere. In Occultism, the world of the Astral light, called symbolically the Cosmic Dragon and the Serpent. (See the works of Eliphaz Lévi, who called this light le Serpent du Mal, and by other names, attributing to it all the evil influences on the earth.)

 

Melekh (Heb.). Lit., “a King”. A title of the Sephira Tiphereth,

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the V, or vau in the tetragrammaton—the son or Microprosopus (the Lesser Face).

 

Melhas (Sk.). A class of fire-gods or Salamanders.

 

Memrab (Heb.). In the Kabala, “the voice of the will” i.e., the collective forces of nature in activity, called the “Word”, or Logos, by the Jewish Kabalists.

 

Mendćans (Gr.). Also called Sabians, and St. John Christians. The latter is absurd, since, according to all accounts, and even their own, they have nothing at all to do with Christianity, which they abominate. The modern sect of the Mendćans is widely scattered over Asia Minor and elsewhere, and is rightly believed by several Orientalists to be a direct surviving relic of the Gnostics. For as explained in the Dictionnaire des Apocryphes by the Abbé Migrie (art. “Le Code Nazaréan” vulgaire-ment appele
Livre d’Adam”), the Mendćans (written in French Mandaїtes, which name they pronounce as Mandai) “properly signifies science, knowledge or Gnosis. Thus it is the equivalent of Gnostics” (loc. cit. note p. 3). As the above cited work shows, although many travellers have spoken of a sect whose followers are variously named Sabians, St. John’s Christians and Mendćans, and who are scattered around
Schat-Etarab at the junction of the Tigris and Euphrates (principally at Bassorah, Hoveїza, Korna, etc.), it was Norberg who was the first to point out a tribe belonging to the same sect established in Syria. And they are the most interesting of all. This tribe, some 14,000 or 15,000 in number, lives at a day’s march east of Mount Lebanon, principally at Elmerkah, (Lata-Kieh). They call themselves indifferently Nazarenes and Galileans, as they originally come to Syria from Galilee. They claim that their religion is the same as that of St. John the Baptist, and that it has not changed one bit since his day. On festival days they clothe them selves in camel’s skins, sleep on camel’s skins, and eat locusts and honey as did their “Father, St. John the Baptist”. Yet they call Jesus Christ an impostor, a false Messiah, and Nebso (or the planet Mercury in its evil side), and show him as a production of the Spirit of the “seven badly- disposed stellars” (or planets). See Codex Nazarćus, which is their Scripture.

 

Mendes (Gr.). The name of the demon-goat, alleged by the Church of Rome to have been worshipped by the Templars and other Masons. But this goat was a myth created by the evil fancy of the odium theologicum. There never was such a creature, nor was its worship known among Templars or their predecessors, the Gnostics. The god of Mendes, or the Greek Mendesius, a name given to Lower Egypt in pre-Christian days, was the ram-headed god Ammon, the living and holy spirit of Ra, the life-giving sun; and this led certain Greek authors into the error of

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affirming that the Egyptians called the “goat” (or the ram-headed god) himself, Mendes. Ammon was for ages the chief deity of Egypt, the supreme god; Amoun-Ra the “hidden god”, or Amen (the concealed) the Self-engendered who is “his own father and his own son”. Esoterically, he was Pan, the god of nature or nature personified, and probably the cloven foot of Pan the goat-footed, helped to produce the error of this god being a goat. As Ammon’s shrine was at Pa-bi-neb-tat, “the dwelling of Tat or Spirit, Lord of Tat” (Bindedi in the Assyrian inscriptions), the Greeks first corrupted the name into Bendes and then into Mendes from “Mendesius”. The “error” served ecclesiastical purposes too well to be made away with, even when recognized.

 

Mensambulism (Lat.). A word coined by some French Kabalists to denote the phenomenon of “table turning” from the Latin mensa, a table.

 

Meracha phath (Heb.). Used of the “breathing” of the divine Spirit when in the act of hovering over the waters of space before creation (See Siphra Dzeniutha).

 

Mercavah or Mercabah (Heb.). A chariot: the Kabalists say that the Supreme after he had established the Ten Sephiroth used them as a chariot or throne of glory on which to descend upon the souls of men.

 

Merodach (Chald.). God of Babylon, the Bel of later times. He is the son of Davkina, goddess of the lower regions, or the earth, and of Hea, God of the Seas and Hades with the Orientalists; but esoterically and with the Akkadians, the Great God of Wisdom, “he who resurrects the dead”. Hea, Ea, Dagon or Oannes and Merodach are one.

 

Meru (Sk.). The name of an alleged mountain in the centre (or “navel”) of the earth where Swarga, the Olympus of the indians, is placed. It contains the “cities” of the greatest gods and the abodes of various Devas. Geographically accepted, it is an unknown mountain north of the Himalayas. In tradition, Meru was the “ Land of Bliss” of the earliest Vedic times. It is also referred to as Hemâdri “the golden mountain”, Ratnasânu, “jewel peak”, Karnikâchala, “lotus- mountain”, and Amarâdri and Deva-parvata, “the mountain of the gods” The Occult teachings place it in the very centre of the North Pole, pointing it out as the site of the first continent on our earth, after the solidification of the globe.

 

Meshia and Meshiane (Zend). The Adam and Eve of the Zoroastrians, in the early Persian system; the first human couple.

 

Mesmer, Friedrich Anton. The famous physician who rediscovered and applied practically that magnetic fluid in man which was called animal magnetism and since then Mesmerism. He was born in Schwaben, in 1734 and died in 1815. He was an initiated member of the Brother-

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hoods of the Fratres Lucis and of Lukshoor (or Luxor), or the Egyptian Branch of’ the latter. It was the Council of “Luxor” which selected him—according to the orders of the “Great Brotherhood”—to act in the XVIIIth century as their usual pioneer, sent in the last quarter of every century to enlighten a small portion of the Western nations in occult lore. It was St. Germain who supervised the development of events in this case; and later Cagliostro was commissioned to help, but having made a series of mistakes, more or less fatal, he was recalled. Of these three men who were at first regarded as quacks, Mesmer is already vindicated. The justification of the two others will follow in the next century. Mesmer founded the “Order of Universal Harmony” in 1783, in which presumably only animal magnetism was taught, but which in reality expounded the tenets of Hippocrates, the methods of the ancient Asclepieia, the Temples of Healing, and many other occult sciences.

 

Metatron (Heb.). The Kabbalistic “Prince of Faces”, the Intelligence of the First Sephira, and the reputed ruler of Moses. His numeration is 314, the same as the deity title “Shaddai”, Almighty. He is also the Angel of the world of Briah, and he who conducted the Isrćlites through the Wilderness, hence, the same as “the Lord God” Jehovah. The name resembles the Greek words metathronon or “beside the Throne”.[w.w.w.]

 

Metempsychosis. The progress of the soul from one stage of existence to another. Symbolized as and vulgarly believed to be rebirths in animal bodies. A term generally misunderstood by every class of European and American society, including many scientists. Metempsychosis should apply to animals alone. The kabalistic axiom, “A stone becomes a plant, a plant an animal, an animal a man, a man a spirit, and a spirit a god”, receives an explanation in Manu’s Mânava-Dharma-Shâstra and other Brahmanical books.

 

Metis (Gr.). Wisdom. The Greek theology associated Metis— Divine Wisdom, with Eros—Divine Love. The word is also said to form part of the Templars’ deity or idol Baphomet, which some authorities derive from Baphe, baptism, and Metis, wisdom; while others say that the idol represented the two teachers whom the Templars equally denied, viz., Papa or the Pope, and Mahomet. [w.w.w.]

 

Midgard (Scand.). The great snake in the Eddas which gnaws the roots of the Yggdrasil—the Tree of Life and the Universe in the legend of the Norsemen. Midgard is the Mundane Snake of Evil.

 

Midrashim (Heb.). “Ancient”—the same as Purâna ; the ancient writings of the Jews as the Purânas are called the “Ancient” (Scriptures) of India.

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Migmar (Tib.). The planet Mars.

 

Mîmânsâ (Sk.). A school of philosophy; one of the six in India. There are two Mîmânsâ the older and the younger. The first, the “Pârva-Mîmânsâ”, was founded by Jamini, and the later or “Uttara Mîmânsâ”, by a Vyasa—and is now called the Vedânta school. Sankarâchârya was the most prominent apostle of the latter. The Vedânta school is the oldest of all the six Darshana (lit., “demonstrations”), but even to the Pűrva-Mîmânsâ no higher antiquity is allowed than 500 B.C. Orientalists in favour of the absurd idea that all these schools are “due to Greek influence”, in order to have them fit their theory would make them of still later date. The Shad-darshana (or Six Demonstrations) have all a starting point in common, and maintain that ex nihilo nihil fit.

 

Mimir (Scand.). A wise giant in the Eddas. One of the Jotuns or Titans. He had a well which he watched over (Mimir’s well), which contained the waters of Primeval Wisdom, by drinking of which Odin acquired the knowledge of all past, present, and future events.

 

Minas (Sk.). The same as Meenam, the Zodiacal sign Pisces or Fishes.

 

Minos (Gr.,). The great Judge in Hades. An ancient King of Crete.

 

Miölner (Scand.) The storm-hammer of Thor (See “Svastica”) made for him by the Dwarfs; with it the God conquered men and gods alike. The same kind of magic weapon as the Hindu Agneyastra, the fire- weapon.

 

Mirror. The Luminous Mirror, Aspaqularia nera, a Kabbalistic term, means the power of foresight and farsight, prophecy such as Moses had. Ordinary mortals have only the Aspaqularia della nera or Non Luminous Mirror, they see only in a glass darkly: a parallel symbolism is that of the conception of the Tree of Life, and that only of the Tree of Knowledge. [w.w.w.]

 

Mishnah (Heb.). The older portion of the Jewish Talmud, or oral law,, consisting of supplementary regulations for the guidance of the Jews with an ample commentary. The contents are arranged in six sections, treating of Seeds, Feasts, Women, Damages, Sacred Things and Purification. Rabbi Judah Haunasee codified the Mishnah about AM. 140.[w.w.w.]

 

Mistletoe. This curious plant, which grows only as a parasite upon other trees, such as the apple and the oak, was a mystic plant in several ancient religions, notably that of the Celtic Druids: their priests cut the Mistletoe with much ceremony at certain seasons, and then only with a specially consecrated golden knife. Hislop suggests as a religious explanation that the Mistletoe being a Branch growing out of a Mother tree was worshipped as a Divine Branch out of an Earthly Tree, the

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union of deity and humanity. The name in German means “all heal”. Compare the Golden Branch in Virgil’s Ćneid, Vi. 126: and Pliny, Hist. Nat., xvii. 4 “Sacerdos candida veste cultus arborem scandit,
falce aurea demetit.
” [w.w.w.]

 

Mitra or Mithra. (Pers.) An ancient Iranian deity, a sun-god, as evidenced by his being lion-headed. The name exists also in India and means a form of the sun. The Persian Mithra, he who drove out of heaven Ahriman, is a kind of Messiah who is expected to return as the judge of men, and is a sin-bearing god who atones for the iniquities of mankind. As such, however, he is directly connected with the highest Occultism, the tenets of which were expounded during the Mithraic Mysteries which thus bore his name.

 

Mitre. The head-dress of a religious dignitary, as of a Roman Catholic Bishop: a capending upwards in two lips, like a fish’s head with open mouth—os tincć associated with Dagon, the Babylonian deity, the word dag meaning fish. Curiously enough the os uteri has been so called in the human female and the fish is related to the goddess Aphrodite who sprang from the sea. It is curious also that the ancient Chaldee legends speak of a religious teacher coming to them springing out of the sea, named Oannes and Annedotus, half fish, half man. [w.w.w.]

 

Mizraim (Eg.). The name of Egypt in very ancient times, This name is now connected with Freemasonry. See the rite of Mizraim and the rite of Memphis in Masonic Cyclopćdias.

 

Mlechchhas (Sk.). Outcasts. The name given to all foreigners, and those who are non-Aryas.

 

Mnevis (Eg.). The bull Mnevis, the Son of Ptah, and the symbol of the Sun-god Ra, as Apis was supposed to be Osiris in the sacred bull-form. His abode was at Heliopolis, the City of the Sun. He was black and carried on his horns the sacred urćus and disk.

 

Mobeds (Zend). Parsi, or Zoroastrian priests.

 

Moira (Gr.). The same as the Latin Fatum—fate, destiny, the power which rules over the actions, sufferings, the life and struggles of men. But this is not Karma; it is only one of its agent-forces.

 

Moksha (Sk.). “Liberation.” The same as Nirvâna; a post mortem state of rest and bliss of the “Soul-Pilgrim”.

 

Monad (Gr.). The Unity, the one ; but in Occultism it often means the unified triad, Atma-Buddhi-Manas, or the duad, Atma-Buddhi, that immortal part of man which reincarnates in the lower kingdoms, and gradually progresses through them to Man and then to the final goal— Nirvâna.

 

Monas (Gr.). The same as the term Monad ; “Alone”, a unit. In

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the Pythagorean system the duad emanates from the higher and solitary Monas, which is thus the “First Cause”.

 

Monogenes (Gr.). Lit., “the only-begotten”; a name of Proserpine and other gods and goddesses.

 

Moon. The earth’s satellite has figured very largely as an emblem in the religions of antiquity; and most commonly has been represented as Female, but this is not universal, for in the myths of the Teutons and Arabs, as well as in the conception of the Rajpoots of India (see Tod, Hist.), and in Tartary the moon was male. Latin authors speak of Luna. and also of Lunus, but with extreme rarity. The Greek name is Selene, the Hebrew Lebanah and also Yarcah. In Egypt the moon was associated with Isis, in Phenicia with Astarte and in Babylon with Ishtar. From certain points of view the ancients regarded the moon also as Androgyne. The astrologers allot an Influence to the moon over the several parts of a man, according to the several Zodiacal signs she traverses; as well as a special influence produced by the house she occupies in a figure.

The division of the Zodiac into the 28 mansions of the moon appears to be older than that into 12 signs: the Copts, Egyptians, Arabs, Persians and Hindoos used the division into 28 parts centuries ago, and the Chinese use it still.

The Hermetists said the moon gave man an astral form, while Theosophy teaches that the Lunar Pitris were the creators of our human bodies and lower principles. (See Secret Doctrine 1. 386.) [w.w.w.]

 

Moriah, Mount. The site of King Solomon’s first temple at Jerusalem according to tradition. It is to that mount that Abraham journeyed to offer Isaac in sacrifice.

 

Morya (Sk.). One of the royal Buddhist houses of Magadha; to which belonged Chandragupta and Asoka his grandson; also the name of a Rajpoot tribe.

 

Môt (Phśn.). The same as ilus, mud, primordial chaos; a word used in the Tyrrhenian Cosmogony
(See “Suidas”).

 

Mout or Mooth (Eg.). The mother goddess; the primordial goddess, for “all the gods are born from Mooth”, it is said. Astronomically, the moon.

 

Mu (Senzar). The mystic word (or rather a portion of it) in Northern Buddhism. It means the “destruction of temptation” during the course of Yoga practice.

 

Mudra (Sk.). Called the mystic seal. A system of occult signs made with the fingers. These signs imitate ancient Sanskrit characters of magic efficacy. First used in the Northern Buddhist Yogâcharya School,

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they were adopted later by the Hindu Tantrikas, but often misused by them for black magic purposes.

 

Mukta and Mukti (Sk.). Liberation from sentient life; one beatified or liberated; a candidate for Moksha, freedom from flesh and matter, or life on this earth.

 

Műlaprakriti (Sk.). The Parabrahmic root, the abstract deific feminine principle—undifferentiated substance. Akâsa. Literally, “the root of Nature” (Prakriti) or Matter.

 

 

Mulil (Chald.). A name of the Chaldean Bel.

 

Muluk-Taoos (Arab.). From Maluk, “Ruler”, a later form of Moloch, Melek, Malayak and Malachim, “messengers”, angels. It is the Deity worshipped by the Yezidis, a sect in Persia, kindly called by Christian theology “devil worshippers”, under the form of a peacock. The Lord “Peacock” is not Satan, nor is it the devil; for it is simply the symbol of the hundred eyed Wisdom ; the bird of Saraswati, goddess of Wisdom; of Karttikeya the Kumâra, the Virgin celibate of the Mysteries of Juno, and all the gods and goddesses connected with the secret learning.

 

Mummy. The name for human bodies embalmed and preserved according to the ancient Egyptian method. The process of mummification is a rite of extreme antiquity in the land of the Pharaohs, and was considered as one of the most sacred ceremonies. It was, moreover, a process showing considerable learning in chemistry and surgery. Mummies 5,000 years old and more, reappear among us a preserved and fresh as when they first came from the hands of the Parashistes.

 

Mumukshatwa (Sk.). Desire for liberation (from reincarnation and thraldom of matter).

 

Mundakya Upanishad (Sk.). Lit., the “Mundaka esoteric doctrine”, a work of high antiquity. It has been translated by Raja Rammohun Roy.

 

Mundane Egg or Tree, or any other such symbolical object in the world Mythologies. Meru is a
“Mundane Mountain” ; the Bodhi Tree, or Ficus religiosa, is the Mundane Tree of the Buddhists; just as the Yggdrasil is the “Mundane Tree” of the Scandinavians or Norsemen.

 

Munis (Sk.). Saints, or Sages.

 

Murâri (Sk.). An epithet of Krishna or Vishnu; lit., the enemy of Mura—an Asura.

 

Műrti(Sk.). A form, or a sign, or again a face, e.g., “Triműrti”, the “three Faces” or Images.

 

Murttimat (Sk.). Something inherent or incarnate in something else and inseparable from it; like wetness in water, which is coexistent and coeval with it. Used of some attributes of Brahmâ and other gods.

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Muspel (Scand.). A giant in the Edda, the Fire-god, and the father of the Flames. It was these evil sons of the good Muspel Who after threatening evil in Glowheim (Muspelheim) finally gathered into a formidable army, and fought the “Last Battle” on the field of Wigred. Muspel is rendered as “World (or Mundane) Fire”. The conception Dark Surtur (black smoke) out of which flash tongues of flame, connects Muspel with the Hindu Agni.

 

Mutham or Mattam. (Sk.). Temples in India with cloisters and monasteries for regular ascetics and scholars.

 

Myalba (Tib.). In the Esoteric philosophy of Northern Buddhism, the name of our Earth, called Hell for those who reincarnate in it for punishment. Exoterically, Myalba is translated a Hell.

 

Mystagogy (Gr.). The doctrines or interpretations of the sacred mysteries.

 

Mysterium Magnum (Lat.). “The great Mystery”, a term used in Alchemy in connection with the fabrication of the “Philosopher’s Stone” and the “ Elixir of Life”.

 

Mysteries. Greek teletai, or finishings, celebrations of initiation or the Mysteries. They were observances, generally kept secret from the profane and uninitiated, in which were taught by dramatic representation and other methods, the origin of things, the nature of the human spirit, its relation to the body, and the method of its purification and restoration to higher life. Physical science, medicine, the laws of music, divination, were all taught in the same manner. The Hippocratic oath was but a mystic obligation. Hippocrates was a priest of Asklepios, some of whose writings chanced to become public. But the Asklepiades were initiates of the Ćsculapian serpent-worship, as the Bacchantes were of the Dionysia; and both rites were eventually incorporated with the Eleusinia. The Sacred Mysteries were enacted in the ancient Temples by the initiated Hierophants for the benefit and instruction of the candidates. The most solemn and occult Mysteries were certainly those which were performed in Egypt by “the band of secret-keepers”, as Mr. Bonwick calls the Hierophants. Maurice describes their nature very graphically in a few lines. Speaking of the Mysteries performed in Philć (the Nile-island), he says that “it was in these gloomy caverns that the grand and mystic arcana of the goddess (Isis) were unfolded to the adoring aspirant, while the solemn hymn of initiation resounded through the long extent of these stony recesses”. The word “mysteries” is derived from the Greek muô, “to close the mouth”, and every symbol connected with them had, a hidden meaning. As Plato and many other sages of antiquity affirm, the Mysteries were highly religious, moral and beneficent as a school of ethics. The Grecian mysteries, those of

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Ceres and Bacchus, were only imitations of the Egyptian; and the author of Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought, informs us that our own “word chapel or capella is said to be the Caph-El or college of El, the Solar divinity”. The well-known Kabiri are associated with the Mysteries. In short, the Mysteries were in every country a series of dramatic performances, in which the mysteries of cosmogony and nature, in general, were personified by the priests and neophytes, who enacted the part of various gods and goddesses, repeating supposed scenes (allegories) from their respective lives. These were explained in their hidden meaning to the candidates for initiation, and incorporated into philosophical doctrines.

 

Mystery Language. The sacerdotal secret jargon employed by the initiated priests, and used only when discussing sacred things. Every nation had its own “mystery” tongue, unknown save to those admitted to the Mysteries.                  

                                      

Mystes (Gr.). In antiquity, the name of the new Initiates; now that of Roman Cardinals, who having borrowed all their other rites and dogmas from Aryan, Egyptian and Hellenic “heathen”, have helped themselves also to the musiz of the neophytes. They have to keep their eyes and mouth shut on their consecration and are, therefore, called Mystć.     

 

Mystica Vannus Iacchi. Commonly translated the mystic Fan: but in an ancient terra-cotta in the British Museum the fan is a Basket such as the Ancients’ Mysteries displayed with mystic contents: Inman says with emblematic testes. [w.w.w.]

                                  

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N —The 14th letter in both the English and the Hebrew alphabets. In the latter tongue the N is called Nun, and signifies a fish. It is the symbol of the female principle or the womb. Its numerical value is 50 in the Kabalistic system, but the Peripatetics made it equivalent to 900, and with a stroke over it (900) 9,000. With the Hebrews, however, the final Nun was 700.

 

Naaseni. The Christian Gnostic sect, called Naasenians, or serpent worshippers, who considered the constellation of the Dragon as the symbol of their Logos or Christ.

 

Nabatheans. A sect almost identical in their beliefs with the Nazarenes and Sabeans, who had more reverence for John the Baptist than for Jesus. Maimonides identifies them with the astrolaters.

“Respecting the beliefs of the Sabeans”, he says, “the most famous is the book, The agriculture of the Nabatheans”. And we know that the Ebionites, the first of whom were the friends and relatives of Jesus, according to tradition, in other words, the earliest and first Christians, “were the direct followers and disciples of the Nazarene sect”, according to Epiphanius and Theodoret (See the Contra Ebionites of Epiphanius, and also “Galileans” and “Nazarenes”).

 

Nabhi (Sk.). The father of Bhârata, who gave his name to Bhârata Varsha (land) or India.

 

Nabia (Heb.). Seership, soothsaying. This oldest and most respected of mystic phenomena is the name given to prophecy in the Bible, and is correctly included among the spiritual powers, such as divination, clairvoyant visions, trance-conditions, and oracles. But while enchanters, diviners, and even astrologers are strictly condemned in the Mosaic books, prophecy, seership, and nabia appear as the special gifts of heaven. In early ages they were all termed Epoptai (Seers), the Greek word for Initiates; they were also designated Nebim, “the plural of Nebo, the Babylonian god of wisdom.” The Kabalist distinguishes between the seer and the magician; one is passive, the other active; Nebirah, is one who looks into futurity and a clairvoyant; Nebi-poel, he who possesses magic powers. We notice that Elijah and Apollonius resorted to the same means to isolate themselves from the disturbing influences of the outer world, viz., wrapping their heads entirely in a woollen mantle, from its being an electric non-conductor we must suppose.

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Nabu (Chald.). Nebu or Nebo, generally; the Chaldean god of Secret Wisdom, from which name the Biblical, Hebrew term Nabiim (prophets) was derived. This son of Anu and Ishtar was worshipped chiefly at Borsippa; but he had also his temple at Babylon, above that of Bel, devoted to the seven planets.
(See “ Nazarenes” and “ Nebo”.)

 

Nâga (Sk.). Literally “Serpent”. The name in the Indian Pantheon of the Serpent or Dragon Spirits, and of the inhabitants of Pâtâla, hell. But as Pâtâla means the antipodes, and was the name given to America by the ancients, who knew and visited that continent before Europe had ever heard of it, the term is probably akin to the Mexican Nagals the (now) sorcerers and medicine men. The Nagas are the Burmese Nats, serpent-gods, or “dragon demons”. In Esotericism, however, and as already stated, this is a nick-name for the “wise men” or adepts in China and Tibet, the “Dragons.” are regarded as the titulary deities of the world, and of various spots on the earth, and the word is explained as meaning adepts, yogis, and narjols. The term has simply reference to their great knowledge and wisdom. This is also proven in the ancient Sűtras and Buddha’s biographies. The Nâga is ever a wise man, endowed with extraordinary magic powers, in South and Central America as in India, in Chaldea as also in ancient Egypt. In China the “worship” of the Nâgas was widespread, and it has become still more pronounced since Nâgarjuna (the “great Nâga”, the “great adept” literally), the fourteenth Buddhist patriarch, visited China. The “Nâgas" are regarded by the Celestials as “the tutelary Spirits or gods of the five regions or the four points of the compass and the centre, as the guardians of the five lakes and four oceans” (Eitel). This, traced to its origin and translated esoterically, means that the five continents and their five root-races had always been under the guardianship of “terrestrial deities”, i.e., Wise Adepts. The tradition that Nâgas washed Gautama Buddha at his birth, protected him and guarded the relics of his body when dead, points again to the Nâgas being only wise men, Arhats, and no monsters or Dragons. This is also corroborated by the innumerable stories of the conversion of Nâgas to Buddhism. The Nâga of a lake in a forest near Râjagriha and many other “Dragons” were thus converted by Buddha to the good Law.

 

Nâgadwîpa (Sk.). Lit., “the island of the Dragons”; one of the Seven Divisions of Bhâratavarsha, or modern India, according to the Purânas. No proofs remain as to who were the Nâgas (a historical people however), the favourite theory being that they were a Scythic race. But there is no proof of this. When the Brahmans invaded India they “found a race of wise men, half-gods, half-demons”, says the legend, men who were the teachers of other races and became likewise

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the instructors of the Hindus and the Brahmans themselves. Nagpur is justly believed to be the surviving relic of Nâgadwîpa. Now Nagpur is virtually in Râjputana near Oodeypore, Ajmere, etc. And is it not well known that there was a time when Brahmans went to learn Secret Wisdom from the Râjputs? Moreover a tradition states that Apollonius of Tyana was instructed in magic by the Nâgas of Kashmere.

 

Nagal. The title of the chief Sorcerer or “medicine man” of some tribes of Mexican Indians. These keep always a daimon or god, in the shape of a serpent—and sometimes some other sacred animal—who is said to inspire them.

 

Nâgarâjas (Sk.). The usual name given to all the supposed “guardian Spirits” of lakes and rivers, meaning literally “Dragon Kings”. All of these are shown in the Buddhist chronicles as having been converted to the Buddhist monastic life : i.e , as becoming Arhats from the Yogis that they were before.

 

Nâgârjuna (Sk.). An Arhat, a hermit (a native of Western India) converted to Buddhism by Kapimala and the fourteenth Patriarch, and now regarded as a Bodhisattva-Nirmanakaya. He was famous for his dialectical subtlety in metaphysical arguments; and was the first teacher of the Amitâbha doctrine and a representative of the Mahayâna School. Viewed as the greatest philosopher of the Buddhists, he was referred to as “one of the four suns which illumine the world”. He was born 223 B.C, and going to China after his conversion converted in his turn the whole country to Buddhism.

 

Nagkon Wat (Siam.). Imposing ruins in the province of Siamrap (Eastern Siam), if ruins they may
be called. An abandoned edifice of most gigantic dimensions, which, together with the great temple of Angkorthâm, are the best preserved relics of the past in all Asia. After the Pyramids this is the most occult edifice in the whole world. Of an oblong form, it is 796 feet in length and 588 in width, entirely built of stone, the roof included, but without cement like the pyramids of Ghizeh, the stones fitting so closely that the joints are even now hardly discernible. It has a central pagoda 250 feet in height from the first floor, and four smaller pagodas at the four corners, about 175 feet each. In the words of a traveller, (The Land of the White Elephant, Frank Vincent, p. 209) “in style and beauty of architecture, solidity of construction, and magnificent and elaborate carving and sculpture, the great Nagkon Wat has no superior, certainly no rival, standing at the present day.” (See Isis Unv., Vol. I. pp. 561-566.)

 

Nahash (Heb.). “The Deprived”; the Evil one or the Serpent, according to the Western Kabalists.

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Nahbkoon (Eg)  The god who unites the “doubles”, a mystical term referring to the human disembodied “principles”.

 

Naimittika (Sk.). Occasional, or incidental; used of one of the four kinds of Pralayas (See “Pralaya”).

 

Naїn (Scand.). The “Dwarf of Death”.

 

Najo (Hind.). Witch; a sorceress.

 

Nakshatra (Sk.). Lunar asterisms.

 

Namah (Sk.). In Pali Namo. The first word of a daily invocation among Buddhists, meaning “I humbly trust, or adore, or acknowledge” the Lord; as: “Namo tasso Bhagavato Arahato” etc., addressed to Lord Buddha. The priests are called “Masters of Namah”—both Buddhist and Taoist, because this word is used in liturgy and prayers, in the invocation of the Triratna (q.v.), and with a slight change in the occult incantations to the Bodhisvattvas and Nirmânakâyas.

 

Nanda (Sk.). One of the Kings of Magadha (whose dynasty was overthrown by Chandragupta q.v.).

 

Nandi (Sk.). The sacred white bull of Siva and his Vâhan (Vehicle).

 

Nanna (Scand.). The beautiful bride of Baldur, who fought with the blind Hodur (“ he who rules over darkness ”) and received his death from the latter by magic art. Baldur is the personification of Day, Hodur of Night, and the lovely Nanna of Dawn.

 

Nannak (Chald.), also Nanar and Sin. A name of the moon; said to be the son of Mulil, the older Bel and the Sun, in the later mythology. In the earliest, the Moon is far older than the Sun.

 

Nara (Sk.). “Man”, the original, eternal man.

 

Nârâ. (Sk.). The waters of Space, or the Great Deep, whence the name of Nârâyana or Vishnu.

 

Nara Sinha (Sk.). Lit., “Man-lion”; an Avatar of Vishnu.

 

Nârada (Sk.). One of the Seven great Rishis, a Son of Brahmâ This “Progenitor” is one of the most mysterious personages in the Brahmanical sacred symbology. Esoterically Nârada is the Ruler of events during various Karmic cycles, and the personification, in a certain sense, of the great human cycle; a Dhyan Chohan. He plays a great part in Brahmanism, which ascribes to him some of the most occult hymns in the Rig Veda, in which sacred work he is described as “of the Kanwa family”. He is called Deva-Brahmâ, but as such has a distinct character from the one he assumes on earth—or Pâtâla. Daksha cursed him for his interference with his 5,000 and 10,000 sons, whom he persuaded to remain Yogins and celibates, to be reborn time after time on this earth (Mahâbhârata). But this is an allegory. He was the inventor of the

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Vina, a kind of lute, and a great “lawgiver”. The story is too long to be given here.

 

Nâraka (Sk.). In the popular conception, a hell, a “prison under earth”. The hot and cold hells, each eight in number, are simply emblems of the globes of our septenary chain, with the addition of the “eighth sphere” supposed to be located in the moon. This is a transparent blind, as these “hells” are called vivifying hells because, as explained, any being dying in one is immediately born in the second, then in the third, and so on; life lasting in each 500 years (a blind on the number of cycles and reincarnations). As these hells constitute one of the six gâti (conditions of sentient existence), and as people are said to be reborn in one or the other according to their Karmic merits or demerits, the blind becomes self-evident. Moreover, these Nârakas are rather purgatories than hells, since release from each is possible through the prayers and intercessions of priests for a consideration, just as in the Roman Catholic Church, which seems to have copied the Chinese-ritualism in this pretty closely. As said before, esoteric philosophy traces every hell to life on earth, in one or another form of sentient existence.

 

Nârâyana (Sk.). The “mover on the Waters” of space: a title of Vishnu, in his aspect of the Holy Spirit, moving on the Waters of Creation. (See Mânu, Book II.) In esoteric symbology it stands for the primeval manifestation of the life-principle, spreading in infinite Space.

 

Nargal (Chald.). The Chaldean and Assyrian chiefs of the Magi (Rab Mag).

 

Narjol (Tib.). A Saint; a glorified Adept.

 

Naros or Neros (Heb.). A cycle, which the Orientalists describe as consisting of 600 years. But what years? There were three kinds of Neros : the greater, the middle and the less. It is the latter cycle only which was of 600 years. (See “Neros”.)

 

Nâstika (Sk.). Atheist, or rather he who does not worship or recognize the gods and idols.

 

Nâth (Sk.). A Lord: used of gods and men; a title added to the first name of men and things as Badrinath (lord of mountains), a famous place of pilgrimage; Gopinath (lord of the shepherdesses), used of Krishna.

 

Nava Nidhi (Sk.). Lit., “the nine Jewels”; a consummation of spiritual development, in mysticism.

 

Nazar (Heb.). One “set apart”; a temporary monastic class of celibates spoken of in the Old Testament, who married not, nor did they use wine during the time of their vow, and who wore their hair long,

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cutting it only at their initiation. Paul must have belonged to this class of Initiates, for he himself tells the Galatians (i. x5) that he was separated or “set apart” from the moment of his birth ; and that he had his hair cut at Cenchrea, because “he had a vow” (Acts xviii.18), i.e., had been initiated as a Nazar; after which he became a “ master-builder” (i Corinth. iii.10). Joseph is styled a Nazar (Gen. xlix. 26). Samson and Samuel were also Nazars, and many more.

 

Nazarenes (Heb.). The same as the St. John Christians; called the Mend or Sabeans. Those Nazarenes who left Galilee several hundred years ago and settled in Syria, east of Mount Lebanon, call themselves also Galileans ; though they designate Christ “a false Messiah” and recognise only St. John the Baptist, whom they call the “Great Nazar”. The Nabatheans with very little difference adhered to the same belief as the Nazarenes or the Sabeans. More than this— the Ebionites, whom Renan shows as numbering among their sect all the surviving relatives of Jesus, seem to have been followers of the same sect if we have to believe St. Jerome, who writes: “ I received permission from the Nazarćans who at Berća of Syria used this (Gospel of Matthew written in Hebrew) to translate it.... The Evangel which the Nazarenes and Ebionites use which recently I translated from Hebrew into Greek.’ (Hieronymus’ Comment. to Matthew, Book II., chapter xii., and Hieronymus’ De Viris Illust. cap 3.) Now this supposed Evangel of Matthew, by whomsoever written, “exhibited matter”, as Jerome complains (bc. cit.), “not for edification but for destruction”(of Christianity). But the fact that the Ebionites, the genuine primitive Christians, “rejecting the rest of the apostolic writings, made use only of this (Matthew’s Hebrew) Gospel”
(Adv. Hćr., i. 26) is very suggestive. For, as Epiphanius declares, the Ebionites firmly believed, with the Nazarenes, that Jesus was but a man “of the seed of a man” (Epiph. Contra Ebionites). Moreover we know from the Codex of the Nazarenes, of which the “Evangel according to Matthew” formed a portion, that these Gnostics, whether Galilean, Nazarene or Gentile, call Jesus, in their hatred of astrolatry, in their Codex Naboo-Meschiha or “ Mercury”. (See “ Mendćans”). This does not shew much orthodox Christianity either in the Nazarenes or the Ebionites; but seems to prove on the contrary that the Christianity of the early centuries and modern Christian theology are two entirely opposite things.

 

Nebban or Neibban (Chin.). The same as Nirvâna, Nippang  in Tibet.

 

Nebo (Chald.). The same as the Hindu Budha, son of Soma the Moon, and Mercury the planet.
(See “Nabu”.)

 

Necromancy (Gr.). The raising of the images of the dead, considered

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in antiquity and by modern Occultists as a practice of black magic. Iamblichus, Porphyry and other Theurgists have deprecated the practice, no less than did Moses, who condemned the “witches” of his day to death, the said witches being only Necromancers—as in the case of the Witch of Endor and Samuel.

 

Nehaschim (Kab.). “The serpent’s works.” It is a name given to the Astral Light, “the great deceiving serpent” (Mâyâ), during certain practical works of magic. (See Sec. Doc. II. 409.)

 

Neilos (Gr.). The river Nile; also a god.

 

Neith (Eg.). Neithes. The Queen of Heaven; the moon-goddess in Egypt. She is variously called
Nout, Nepte, Nur. (For symbolism, see “Nout”.)

 

Neocoros (Gr.). With the Greeks the guardian of a Temple.

 

Neophyte (Gr.). A novice; a postulant or candidate for the Mysteries. The methods of initiation varied. Neophytes had to pass in their trials through all the four elements, emerging in the fifth as glorified Initiates. Thus having passed through Fire (Deity), Water (Divine Spirit), Air (the Breath of God), and the Earth (Matter), they received a sacred mark, a tat and a tau, or a + and a ┬. The latter was the monogram of the Cycle called the Naros, or Neros. As shown by Dr. E. V. Kenealy, in his Apocalypse, the cross in symbolical language (one of the seven meanings)“+ exhibits at the same time three primitive letters, of which the word LVX or Light is compounded. . . . The Initiates were marked with this sign, when they were admitted into the perfect mysteries. We constantly see the Tau and the Resh united thus ♀. Those two letters in the old Samaritan, as found on coins, stand, the first for 400, the second for 200 = 600. This is the staff of Osiris.” Just so, but this does not prove that the Naros was a cycle of 600 years; but simply that one more pagan symbol had been appropriated by the Church.
(See “Naros” and “Neros” and also “I. H. S.”)

                                                                                                               

Neo-platonism. Lit.,“The new Platonism” or Platonic School. An eclectic pantheistic school of philosophy founded in Alexandria by Ammonius Saccas, of which his disciple Plotinus was the head (A.D. 189-270). It sought to reconcile Platonic teachings and the Aristotelean system with oriental Theosophy. Its chief occupation was pure spiritual philosophy, metaphysics and mysticism. Theurgy was introduced towards its later years. It was the ultimate effort of high intelligences to check the ever-increasing ignorant superstition and blind faith of the times; the last product of Greek philosophy, which was finally crushed and put to death by brute force.

 

Nephesh Chia (Kab.). Animal or living Soul.

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Nephesh (Heb.). Breath of life. Anima, Mens, Vita, Appetites. This term is used very loosely in the Bible. It generally means prana “life”; in the Kabbalah it is the animal passions and the animal Soul.
[w.w.w.]  Therefore, as maintained in theosophical teachings, Nephesh is the synonym of the Prâna-Kâmic Principle, or the vital animal Soul in man.
[H. P. B.]

 

Nephilim (Heb.). Giants, Titans, the Fallen Ones.

 

Nephtys (Eg.). The sister of Isis, philosophically only one of her aspects. As Osiris and Typhon are one under two aspects, so Isis and Nephtys are one and the same symbol of nature under its dual aspect. Thus, while Isis is the wife of Osiris, Nephtys is the wife of Typhon, the foe of Osiris and his slayer, although she weeps for him. She is often represented at the bier of the great Sun-god, having on her head a disk between the two horns of a crescent. She is the genius of the lower world, and Anubis, the Egyptian Pluto, is called her son. Plutarch has given a fair esoteric explanation of the two sisters. Thus he writes:

Nephtys designs that which is under the earth, and which one sees not (i.e., its disintegrating and reproducing power), and Isis that which is above earth, and which is visible (or physical nature). . . . The circle of the horizon which divides these two hemispheres and which is common to both, is Anubis.” The identity of the two goddesses is shown in that Isis is also called the mother of Anubis. Thus the two are the Alpha and Omega of Nature.

 

Nergal (Chald.). On the Assyrian tablets he is described as the “giant king of war, lord of the city of Cutha”. It is also the Hebrew name for the planet Mars, associated invariably with ill-luck and danger. Nergal-Mars is the “shedder of blood”. In occult astrology it is less malefic than Saturn, but is more active in its associations with men and its influence on them.

 

Neros (Heb.). As shown by the late E. V. Kenealy this “Naronic Cycle” was a mystery, a true “secret of god”, to disclose which during the prevalence of the religious mysteries and the authority of the priests, meant death. The learned author seemed to take it for granted that the Neros was of 600 years duration, but he was mistaken. (See “Natos”.) Nor were the establishment of the Mysteries and the rites of Initiation due merely the necessity of perpetuating the knowledge of the true meaning of the Naros and keeping this cycle secret from the profane; for the Mysteries are as old as the present human race, and there were far more important secrets to veil than the figures of any cycle. (See “Neophyte” and “I. H. S.”, also “Naros”.) The mystery of 666, “the number of the great heart” so called, is far better represented by the Tau and the Resh than 600.

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Nerthus (Old Sax.). The goddess of the earth, of love and beauty with the old Germans; the same as the Scandinavian Freya or Frigga. Tacitus mentions the great honours paid to Nerthus when her idol was carried on a car in triumph through several districts.

 

Neshamah (Heb.). Soul, anima, afflatus. In the Kabbalah, as taught in the Rosicrucian order, one of the three highest essences of the Human Soul, corresponding to the Sephira Binah. [w.w.w.]

 

Nesku or Nusku (Chald.). Is described in the Assyrian tablets as the “holder of the golden sceptre, the lofty god”.

 

Netzach (Heb.). “Victory”. The seventh of the Ten Sephiroth, a masculine active potency. [w.w.w.]

 

Nidâna (Sk.). The 12 causes of existence, or a chain of causation, “a concatenation of cause and effect in the whole range of existence through 12 links”. This is the fundamental dogma of Buddhist thought, “the understanding of which solves the riddle of life, revealing the insanity of existence and preparing the mind for Nirvâna”. (Eitel’s Sans. Chin. Dict.) The 12 links stand thus in their enumeration. (1) Jail, or birth, according to one of the four modes of entering the stream of life and reincarnation—or Chatur Yoni (q.v.), each mode placing the being born in one of the six Gâti (q.v.). (2) Jarârnarana, or decrepitude and death, following the maturity of the Skandhas (q.v.). (3)  Bhava, the Karmic agent which leads every new sentient being to be born in this or another mode of existence in the Trailokya and Gâti. (4) Upâdâna, the creative cause of Bhava which thus becomes the cause of Jati which is the effect; and this creative cause is the clinging to life. ( 5) Trishnâ, love, whether pure or impure. (6) Vędâna, or sensation; perception by the senses, it is the 5th Skandha. (7) Sparsa, the sense of touch. (8) Chadâyatana, the organs of sensation. (9) Nâmarűpa, personality, i.e., a form with a name to it, the symbol of the unreality of material phenomenal appearances. (10) Vijnâna, the perfect knowledge of every perceptible thing and of all objects in their concatenation and unity. (11) Samskâra, action on the plane of illusion. (12) Avidyâ, lack of true perception, or ignorance. The Nidânas belonging to the most subtle and abstruse doctrines of the Eastern metaphysical system, it is impossible to go into the subject at any greater length.

 

Nidhi (Sk) A treasure. Nine treasures belonging to the god Kuvera—the Vedic Satan—each treasure being under the guardianship of a demon; these are personified, and are the objects of worship of the Tantrikas.

 

Nidhogg (Scand.). The “Mundane” Serpent.

 

Nidra (Sk.). Sleep. Also the female form of Brahmâ.

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Nifiheim (Scand.). The cold Hell, in the Edda. A place of eternal non-consciousness and inactivity. (See Secret Doctrine, Vol. II., p. 245).

 

Night of Brahmâ. The period between the dissolution and the active life of the Universe which is called in contrast the “Day of Brahmâ”.

 

Nilakantha (Sk.). A name of Siva meaning “ blue throated”. This is said to have been the result of some poison administered to the god.

 

Nile-God (Eg.). Represented by a wooden image of the river god receiving honours in gratitude for the bounties its waters afford the country. There was a “celestial” Nile, called in the Ritual Nen-naou or “primordial waters”; and a terrestrial Nile, worshipped at Nilopolis and Hapimoo. The latter was represented as an androgynous being with a beard and breasts, and a fat blue face ; green limbs and reddish body. At the approach of the yearly inundation, the image was carried from one place to another in solemn procession.

 

Nimbus (Lat.). The aureole around the heads of the Christ and Saints in Greek and Romish Churches is of Eastern origin. As every Orientalist knows, Buddha is described as having his head surrounded with shining glory six cubits in width; and, as shown by Hardy (Eastern Monachism), “his principal disciples are represented by the native painters as having a similar mark of eminence”. In China, Tibet and Japan, the heads of the saints are always surrounded with a nimbus.

 

Nimitta (Sk.). 1. An interior illumination developed by the practice of meditation. 2. The efficient spiritual cause, as contrasted with Upadana, the material cause, in Vedânta philosophy. See also Pradhâna in Sankhya philosophy.

 

Nine. The “Kabbalah of the Nine Chambers” is a form of secret writing in cipher, which originated with the Hebrew Rabbis, and has been used by several societies for purposes of concealment notably some grades of the Freemasons have adopted it. A figure is drawn of two horizontal parallel lines and two vertical parallel lines across them, this process forms nine chambers, the centre one a simple square, the others being either two or three sided figures, these are allotted to the several letters in any order that is agreed upon. There is also a Kabbalstic attribution of the ten Sephiroth to these nine chambers, but this is not published. [w.w.w.]

 

Nirguna (Sk.). Negative attribute; unbound, or without Gunas (attributes), i.e., that which is devoid of all qualities, the opposite of Saguna, that which has attributes (Secret Doctrine, II. 95), e.g.,
Parabrahmam is Nirguna; Brahmâ, Saguna. Nirguna is a term which shows the impersonality of the thing spoken of.

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Nirmânakâya (Sk.). Something entirely different in esoteric philosophy from the popular meaning attached to it, and from the fancies of the Orientalists. Some call the Nirmânakâya body “Nirvana with remains” (Schlagintweit, etc.) on the supposition, probably, that it is a kind of Nirvânic condition during which consciousness and form are retained. Others say that it is one of the Trikâya (three bodies), with the “power of assuming any form of appearance in order to propagate Buddhism” (Eitel’s idea); again, that “it is the incarnate avatâra of a deity” (ibid.), and so on. Occultism, on the other hand, says:that Nirmânakâya, although meaning literally a transformed “body”, is a state. The form is that of the adept or yogi who enters, or chooses, that post mortem condition in preference to the Dharmakâya or absolute Nirvânic state. He does this because the latter kâya separates him for ever from the world of form, conferring upon him a state of selfish bliss, in which no other living being can participate, the adept being thus precluded from the possibility of helping humanity, or even devas. As a Nirmânakâya, however, the man leaves behind him only his physical body, and retains every other “principle” save the Kamic—for he has crushed this out for ever from his nature, during life, and it can never resurrect in his post mortem state. Thus, instead of going into selfish bliss, he chooses a life of self-sacrifice, an existence which ends only with the life-cycle, in order to be enabled to help mankind in an invisible yet most effective manner. (See The Voice of the Silence, third treatise, “The Seven Portals”.) Thus a Nirmânakâya is not, as popularly believed, the body “in which a Buddha or a Bodhisattva appears on earth”, but verily one, who whether a Chutuktu or a Khubilkhan, an adept or a yogi during life, has since become a member of that invisible Host which ever protects and watches over Humanity within Karmic limits. Mistaken often for a “Spirit”, a Deva, God himself, &c., a Nirmânakâya is ever a protecting, compassionate, verily a guardian angel, to him who becomes worthy of his help. Whatever objection may be brought forward against this doctrine; however much it is denied, because, forsooth, it has never been hitherto made public in Europe and therefore since it is unknown to Orientalists, it must needs be “a myth of modern invention”—no one will be bold enough to say that this idea of helping suffering mankind at the price of one’s own almost interminable self-sacrifice, is not one of the grandest and noblest that was ever evolved from human brain.

 

Nirmathya (Sk.). The sacred fire produced by the friction of two pieces of wood—the “fire” called Pavamâna in the Purânas. The allegory contained therein is an occult teaching.

 

Nirriti (Sk.). A goddess of Death and Decay.

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Nirukta (Sk.). An anga or limb, a division of the Vedas; a glossarial comment.

 

Nirupadhi (Sk.). Attributeless; the negation of attributes.

 

Nirvâna (Sk.). According to the Orientalists, the entire “blowing out”, like the flame of a candle, the utter extinction of existence. But in the esoteric explanations it is the state of absolute existence and
absolute consciousness, into which the Ego of a man who has reached the highest degree of perfection and holiness during life goes, after the body dies, and occasionally, as in the case of Gautama Buddha and others, during life. (See “Nirvânî”.)

 

Nirvânî (Sk.). One who has attained Nirvana—an emancipated soul. That Nirvâna means nothing of the kind asserted by Orientalists every scholar who has visited China, India and Japan is well aware. It is “escape from misery” but only from that of matter, freedom from Klęsha, or Kâma, and the complete extinction of animal desires. If we are told that Abidharma defines Nirvâna “as a state of absolute annihilation”, we concur, adding to the last word the qualification “of everything connected with matter or the physical world”, and this simply because the latter (as also all in it) is illusion, mâyâ. Sâkya-műni Buddha said in the last moments of his life that “the spiritual body is immortal” (See Sans. Chin. Dict.). As Mr. Eitel, the scholarly Sinologist, explains it: “The popular exoteric systems agree in defining Nirvâna negatively as a state of absolute exemption from the circle of transmigration; as a state of entire freedom from all forms of existence; to begin with, freedom from all passion and exertion; a state of indifference to all sensibility” and he might have added “death of all compassion for the world of suffering”. And this is why the Bodhisattvas who prefer the Nirmânakâya to the Dharmakâya vesture, stand higher in the popular estimation than the Nirvânîs. But the same scholar adds that: “Positively (and esoterically) they define Nirvâna as the highest state of spiritual bliss, as absolute immortality through absorption of the soul (spirit rather) into itself, but preserving individuality so that, e.g., Buddhas, after entering Nirvâna, may reappear on earth”—i.e., in the future Manvantara.

 

Nîshada (Sk.). (1) One of the seven qualities of sound—the one and sole attribute of Akâsa; (2) the seventh note of the Hindu musical scale; (3) an outcast offspring of a Brahman and a Sudra mother;
(4) a range of mountains south of Meru—north of the Himalayas.

 

Nissi (Chald.) One of the seven Chaldean gods.

 

Nîti (Sk.). Lit., Prudence, ethics.

 

Nitya Parivrita. (Sk.). Lit., continuous extinction.

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Nitya Pralaya (Sk.). Lit., “perpetual” Pralaya or dissolution. It is the constant and imperceptible changes undergone by the atoms which last as long as a Mahâmanvantara, a whole age of Brahmâ, which takes fifteen figures to sum up. A stage of chronic change and dissolution, the stages of growth and decay. It is the duration of “Seven Eternities”. (See Secret Doctrine I. 371, II. 69, 310.) There are four kinds of Pralayas, or states of changelessness. The Naimittika, when Brahmâ slumbers; the Prakritika, a partial Pralaya of anything during Manvantara; Atyantika, when man has identified himself with the One Absolute synonym of Nirvâna; and Nitya, for physical things especially, as a state of profound and dreamless sleep.

 

Nitya Sarga (Sk.). The state of constant creation or evolution, as opposed to Nitya Pralaya—the state of perpetual incessant dissolution (or change of atoms) disintegration of molecules, hence change of forms.

 

Nizir (Chald.). The “Deluge Mountain”; the Ararat of the Babylonians with “Xisuthrus” as Noah.

 

Nixies. The water-sprites; Undines.

 

Niyashes (Mazd.). Parsi prayers.

 

Nofir-hotpoo (Eg.). The same as the god Khonsoo, the lunar god of Thebes. Lit., “he who is in absolute rest”. Nofir-hotpoo is one of the three persons of the Egyptian trinity, composed of Ammon, Mooth, and their son Khonsoo or Nofir-hotpoo.

 

Nogah (Chald.). Venus, the planet; glittering splendour.

 

Noo (Eg.). Primordial waters of space called “Father-Mother”; the “face of the deep” of the Bible; for above Noo hovers the Breath of Kneph, who is represented with the Mundane Egg in his mouth.

 

Noom (Eg.). A celestial sculptor, in the Egyptian legends, who creates a beautiful girl whom he sends like another Pandora to Batoo (or “man”), whose happiness is thereafter destroyed. The “sculptor” or artist is the same as Jehovah, the architect of the world, and the girl is “Eve”.

 

Noon (Eg.). The celestial river which flows in Noot, the cosmic abyss or Noo. As all the gods have been generated in the river (the Gnostic Pleroma), it is called “the Father-Mother of the gods”.

 

Noor Ilahee (Arab.). “The light of the Elohim”, literally. This light is believed by some Mussulmen to be transmitted to mortals “through a hundred prophet-leaders”. Divine knowledge; the Light of the Secret Wisdom.

 

Noot (Eg.). The heavenly abyss in the Ritual or the Book of the Dead. It is infinite space personified in the Vedas by Aditi, the goddess who, like Noon (q.v.) is the “mother of all the gods”.

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Norns (Scand.). The three sister goddesses in the Edda, who make known to men the decrees of Orlog or Fate. They are shown as coming out of the unknown distances enveloped in a dark veil to the Ash Yggdrasil (q.v.), and “sprinkle it daily with water from the Fountain of Urd, that it may not wither but remain green and fresh and strong” (Asgard and the Gods). Their names are “Urd”, the Past; “Werdandi”, the Present; and “Skuld”, the Future, “which is either rich in hope or dark with tears”. Thus they reveal the decrees of Fate “for out of the past and present the events and actions of the future are born” (loc. cit.).

 

Notaricon (Kab.). A division of the practical Kabbalah; treats of the formation of words from the initials or finals of the words in every sentence; or conversely it forms a sentence of words whose initials or finals are those of some word [w.w.w.].

 

Noumenon (Gr.). The true essential nature of being as distinguished from the illusive objects of sense.

 

Nous. (Gr.). A Platonic term for the Higher Mind or Soul. It means Spirit as distinct from animal Soul—psyche; divine consciousness or mind in man: Nous was the designation given to the Supreme deity (third logos) by Anaxagoras. Taken from Egypt where it was called Nout, it was adopted by the Gnostics for their first conscious Ćon which, with the Occultists, is the third logos, cosmically, and the third “principle” (from above) or manas, in man. (See “Nout”.)

 

Nout. (Gr.). In the Pantheon of the Egyptians it meant the “One- only-One”, because they did not proceed in their popular or exoteric religion higher than the third manifestation which radiates from the Unknown and the Unknowable, the first unmanifested and the second logoi in the esoteric philosophy of every nation. The Nous of Anaxagoras was the Mahat of the Hindu Brahmâ, the first manifested Deity—
“the Mind or Spirit self-potent”; this creative Principle being of course the primum mobile of everything in the Universe—its Soul and Ideation. (See “Seven Principles” in man.)

 

Number Nip. An Elf, the mighty King of the Riesengebirge, the most powerful of the genii in Scandinavian and German folk-lore.

 

Nuns. There were nuns in ancient Egypt as well as in Peru and old Pagan Rome. They were the “virgin brides” of their respective (Solar) gods. Says Herodotus, “The brides of Ammon are excluded from all intercourse with men”, they are “the brides of Heaven”; and virtually they became dead to the world, just as they are now. In Peru they were “Pure Virgins of the Sun”, and the Pallakists of Ammon-Ra are referred to in some inscriptions as the “divine spouses”. “The sister of Oun-nefer, the chief prophet of Osiris, during the reign of Rameses II.,” is described as “Taia, Lady Abbess of Nuns” (Mariett e Bey).

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Nuntis (Lat.). The “Sun-Wolf”, a name of the planet Mercury. He is the Sun’s attendant,
Solaris luminis particeps. (See Secret Doct. II. 28.)

 

Nyâya (Sk.). One of the six Darshanas or schools of Philosophy in India; a system of Hindu logic founded by the Rishi Gautama.

 

Nyima (Tib.). The Sun—astrologically.

 

Nyingpo (Tib.). The same as Alaya, “the World Soul”; also called Tsang.

 

                    

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0.—The fifteenth letter and fourth vowel in the English alphabet. It has no equivalent in Hebrew, whose alphabet with one exception is vowelless. As a numeral, it signified with the ancients 11; and with a dash on it 11,000. With other ancient people also, it was a very sacred letter. In the Dęvanâgari, or the characters of the gods, its significance is varied, but there is no space to give instances.

 

Oak, sacred. With the Druids the oak was a most holy tree, and so also with the ancient Greeks, if we can believe Pherecydes and his cosmogony, who tells us of the sacred oak “in whose luxuriant branches a serpent (i.e., wisdom) dwelleth, and cannot be dislodged”. Every nation had its own sacred trees, pre-eminently the Hindus.

 

Oannes. (Gr.). Musarus Oannes, the Annedotus, known in the Chaldean “legends”, transmitted through Berosus and other ancient writers, as Dag or Dagon, the “man-fish”. Oannes came to the early Babylonians as a reformer and an instructor. Appearing from the Erythrćan Sea, he brought to them civilisation, letters and sciences, law, astronomy and religion, teaching them agriculture, geometry and the arts in general. There were Annedoti who came after him, five in number (our race being the fifth )—“all like Oannes inform and teaching the same”; but Musarus Oannes was the first to appear, and this he did during the reign of Ammenon, the third of the ten antediluvian Kings whose dynasty ended with Xisuthrus, the Chaldean Noah (See “Xisuthrus”). Oannes was “an animal endowed with reason whose body was that of a fish, but who had a human head under the fish’s with feet also below, similar to those of a man, subjoined to the fish’s tail, and whose voice and language too were articulate and human” (Polyhistor and Apollodorus). This gives the key to the allegory. It points out Oannes, as a man and a “priest”, an Initiate. Layard showed long ago (See Nineveh) that the “fish’s head” was simply a head gear, the mitre worn by priests and gods, made in the form of a fish’s head, and which in a very little modified form is what we see even now on the heads of high Lamas and Romish Bishops. Osiris had such a mitre. The fish’s tail is simply the train of a long stiff mantle as depicted on some Assyrian tablets, the form being seen reproduced in the sacerdotal gold cloth garment worn during service by the modern Greek priests. This allegory of Oannes, the Annedotus, reminds us of the “Dragon” and

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“Snake-Kings “; the Nâgas who in Buddhist legends instruct people in wisdom on lakes and rivers, and end by becoming converts to the good Law and Arhats. The meaning is evident. The “ fish” is an old and very suggestive symbol in the Mystery-language, as is also “water”. Ea or Hea was the god of the sea and Wisdom, and the sea serpent was one of his emblems, his priests being “serpents “ or Initiates. Thus one sees why Occultism places Oannes and the other Annedoti in the group of those ancient “adepts” who were called “marine” or “water dragons”—Nâgas. Water typified their human origin (as it is a symbol of earth and matter and also of purification), in distinction to the “fire Nâgas” or the immaterial, Spiritual Beings, whether celestial Bodhisattvas or Planetary Dhyânis, also regarded as the instructors of mankind. The hidden meaning becomes clear to the Occultist, once he is told that “this being (Oannes) was accustomed to pass the day among men, teaching; and when the Sun had set, he retired again into the sea, passing the night in the deep, “for he was amphibious”, i.e., he belonged to two planes: the spiritual and the physical. For the Greek word amphibios means simply “life on two planes”, from amphi, “on both sides”, and bios, “life”. The word was often applied in antiquity to those men who, though still wearing a human form, had made themselves almost divine through knowledge, and lived as much in the spiritual supersensuous regions as on earth. Oannes is dimly reflected in Jonah, and even in John, the Precursor, both connected with Fish and Water.

 

Ob (Heb.). The astral light-—or rather, its pernicious evil currents— was personified by the Jews as a Spirit, the Spirit of Ob. With them, any one who dealt with spirits and necromancy was said to be possessed by the Spirit of Ob.

 

Obeah. Sorcerers and sorceresses of Africa and the West Indies. A sect of black magicians, snake-charmers, enchanters, &c.

 

Occult Sciences. The science of the secrets of nature—physical and psychic, mental and spiritual; called Hermetic and Esoteric Sciences. In the West, the Kabbalah may be named; in the East, mysticism, magic, and Yoga philosophy, which latter is often referred to by the Chelas in India as the seventh “Darshana” (school of philosophy), there being only six Darshanas in India known to the world of the profane. These sciences are, and have been for ages, hidden from the vulgar for the very good reason that they would never be appreciated by the selfish educated classes, nor understood by the uneducated; whilst the former might misuse them for their own profit, and thus turn the divine science into black magic. It is often brought forward as an accusation against the Esoteric philosophy and the Kabbalah that their literature is full of “a

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barbarous and meaningless jargon” unintelligible to the ordinary mind. But do not exact Sciences—medicine, physiology, chemistry, and the rest—do the same? Do not official Scientists equally veil their facts and discoveries with a newly coined and most barbarous Grćco-Latin terminology? As justly remarked by our late brother, Kenneth Mackenzie—“To juggle thus with words, when the facts are so simple, is the art of the Scientists of the present time, in striking contrast to those of the XVIIth century, who called spades spades, and not ‘agricultural implements ‘.“ Moreover, whilst their facts would be as simple and as comprehensible if rendered in ordinary language, the facts of Occult Science are of so abstruse a nature, that in most cases no words exist in European languages to express them; in addition to which our “jargon” is a double necessity—(a) for the purpose of describing clearly these facts to him who is versed in the Occult terminology; and (b) to conceal them from the profane.

 

Occultist. One who studies the various branches of occult science. The term is used by the French Kabbalists (See Eliphas Lévi’s works). Occultism embraces the whole range of psychological, physiological, cosmical, physical, and spiritual phenomena. From the word occultus hidden or secret. It therefore applies to the study of the Kabbalah, astrology, alchemy, and all arcane sciences.

 

Od (Gr.). From odos, “passage”, or passing of that force which is developed by various minor forces or agencies such as magnets, chemical or vital action, heat, light, &c. It is also called “odic” and “odylic force”, and was regarded by Reichenbach and his followers as an independent entitative force—which it certainly is—stored in man as it is in Nature.

 

Odacon. The fifth Annedotus, or Dagon (See “Oannes”) who appeared during the reign of Euedoreschus from Pentebiblon, also “from the Erythrćan Sea like the former, having the same complicated form between a fish and a man” (Apollodorus, Cory p. 30).

 

Odem or Adm (Heb.). A stone (the cornelian) on the breast-plate of the Jewish High Priest. It is of red colour and possesses a great medicinal power.

 

Odin (Scand.). The god of battles, the old German Sabbaoth, the same as the Scandinavian Wodan. He is the great hero in the Edda and one of the creators of man. Roman antiquity regarded him as one with Hermes or Mercury (Budha), and modern Orientalism (Sir W. Jones) accordingly confused him with Buddha. In the Pantheon of the Norse men, he is the “father of the gods” and divine wisdom, and as such he is of course Hermes or the creative wisdom. Odin or Wodan in creating

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the first man from trees—the Ask (ash) and Embla (the alder)_ endowed them with life and soul, Honir with intellect, and Lodur with form and colour.

 

Odur (Scand.). The human husband of the goddess Freya, a scion of divine ancestry in the Northern mythology.

 

Oeaihu, or Oeaihwu. The manner of pronunciation depends on the accent. This is an esoteric term for the six in one or the mystic seven. The occult name for the “seven vowelled” ever-present manifestation of the Universal Principle.

 

Ogdoad (Gr.). The tetrad or “quaternary” reflecting itself produced the ogdoad, the “eight”, according to the Marcosian Gnostics. The eight great gods were called the “sacred Ogdoad”.

 

Ogham (Celtic). A mystery language belonging to the early Celtic races, and used by the Druids. One form of this language consisted in the association of the leaves of certain trees with the letters, this was called Beth-luis-nion Ogham, and to form words and sentences the leaves were strung on a cord in the proper order. Godfrey Higgins suggests that to complete the mystification certain other leaves which meant nothing were interspersed. [w.w.w.]

 

Ogir or Hler (Scand). A chief of the giants in the Edda and the ally of the gods. The highest of the Water-gods, and the same as the Greek Okeanos.

 

Ogmius. The god of wisdom and eloquence of the Druids, hence Hermes in a sense.

 

Ogygia (Gr.). An ancient submerged island known as the isle of Calypso, and identified by some
with Atlantis. This is in a certain sense correct. But then what portion of Atlantis, since the latter
was a continent rather than an “enormous” island!

 

Oitzoe (Pers.). The invisible goddess whose voice spoke through the rocks, and whom, according to Pliny, the Magi had to consult for the election of their kings.

 

Okhal (Arab.). The “High”priest of the Druzes, an Initiator into their mysteries.

 

Okhema (Gr.). A Platonic term meaning “vehicle” or body.

 

Okuthor (Scand.). The same as Thor, the “thunder god”.

 

Olympus (Gr.). A mount in Greece, the abode of the gods according to Homer and Hesiod.

 

Om or Aum (Sk.). A mystic syllable, the most solemn of all words in India. It is “an invocation, a benediction, an affirmation and a promise and it is so sacred, as to be indeed the word at low breath of occult, primitive masonry. No one must be near when the syllable is

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pronounced for a purpose. This word is usually placed at the beginning of sacred Scriptures, and is prefixed to prayers. It is a compound of three letters a,u,m, which, in the popular belief, are typical of the three Vedas, also of three gods—A (Agni) V (Varuna) and M (Maruts) or Fire, Water and Air. In esoteric philosophy these are the three sacred fires, or the “triple fire”in the Universe and Man, besides many other things. Occultly, this “triple fire” represents the highest Tetraktys also, as it is typified by the Agni named Abhimânin and his transformation into his three sons, Pâvana, Pavamâna and Suchi, “who drinks up water”, i.e., destroys material desires. This monosyllable is called Udgîtta, and is sacred with both Brahmins and Buddhists.

 

Omito-Fo (Chin.). The name of Amita-Buddha, in China.

 

Omkâra (Sk.). The same as Aum or Om. It is also the name of one of the twelve lingams, that was represented by a secret and most sacred shrine at Ujjain—no longer existing, since the time of Buddhism.

 

Omoroka (Chald.). The “sea” and the woman who personifies it according to Berosus, or rather of Apollodorus. As the divine water, however, Omoroka is the reflection of Wisdom from on high.

 

Onech (Heb.). The Phśnix so named after Enoch or Phenoch. For Enoch (also Khenoch) means literally the initiator and instructor, hence the Hierophant who reveals the last mystery. The bird Phśnix is always associated with a tree, the mystical Ababel of the Koran, the Tree of Initiation or of knowledge.

 

Onnofre or Oun-nofre (Eg.). The King of the land of the Dead, the Underworld, and in this capacity the same as Osiris, “who resides in Amenti at Oun-nefer, king of eternity, great god manifested in the celestial abyss”. (A hymn of the XIXth dynasty.) (See also “Osiris”.)

 

Ophanim (Heb.). More correctly written Auphanim. The “wheels” seen by Ezekiel and by John in the Revelation—world.spheres (Secret Doctrine I., 92.) The symbol of the Cherubs or Karoubs (the Assyrian Sphinxes). As these beings are represented in the Zodiac by Taurus, Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius, or the Bull, the Lion, the Eagle and Man, the occult meaning of these creatures being placed in company of the four Evangelists becomes evident. In the Kabbalah they are a group of beings allotted to the Sephira Chokmah, Wisdom.

 

Ophis (Gr.). The same as Chnuphis or Kneph, the Logos; the good serpent or Agathodćmon.

 

Ophiomorphos (Gr.). The same, but in its material aspect, as the Ophis-Christos. With the Gnostics the Serpent represented “Wisdom in Eternity”.

 

Ophis-Christos (Gr.). The serpent Christ of the Gnostics.

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Ophiozenes (Gr.). The name of the Cypriote charmers of venomous serpents and other reptiles and animals.

 

Ophites (Gr.). A Gnostic Fraternity in Egypt, and one of the earliest sects of Gnosticism, or Gnosis (Wisdom, Knowledge), known as the “Brotherhood of the Serpent”. It flourished early in the second century, and while holding some of the principles of Valentinus had its own occult rites and symbology. A living serpent, representing the Christos-principle (i.e., the divine reincarnating Monad, not Jesus the man), was displayed in their mysteries and reverenced as a symbol of wisdom, Sophia, the type of the all-good and all-wise. The Gnostics were not a Christian sect, in the common acceptation of this term, as the Christos of pre-Christian thought and the Gnosis was not the “god-man” Christ, but the divine EGO, made one with Buddhi. Their Christos was the “Eternal Initiate”, the Pilgrim, typified by hundreds of Ophidian symbols for several thousands of years before the “ Christian” era, so- called. One can see it on the “Belzoni tomb” from Egypt, as a winged serpent with three heads (Atma-Buddhi-Manas), and four human legs, typifying its androgynous character; on the walls of the descent to the sepulchral chambers of Rameses V., it is found as a snake with vulture’s wings—the vulture and hawk being solar symbols. “The heavens are scribbled over with interminable snakes ‘ writes Herschel of the Egyptian chart of stars. “The Meissi (Messiah?) meaning the Sacred Word, was a good serpent”, writes Bonwick in his Egyptian Belief. “This serpent of goodness, with its head crowned, was mounted upon a cross and formed a sacred standard of Egypt.” The Jews borrowed it in their “brazen serpent of Moses”. It is to this “Healer” and “Saviour”, therefore, that the Ophites referred, and not to Jesus or his words, “As Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, so it behoves the Son of Man to be lifted up”—when explaining the meaning of their ophis. Tertullian, whether wittingly or unwittingly, mixed up the two. The four-winged serpent is the god Chnuphis. The good serpent bore the cross of life around its neck, or suspended from its mouth. The winged serpents become the Seraphim (Seraph, Saraph) of the Jews. In the 87th chapter of the Ritual
(the Book of the Dead) the human soul transformed into Bata, the omniscient serpents says :—“ I am the serpent Ba-ta, of long years, Soul of the Soul, laid out and born daily; I am the Soul that descends on the earth”, i.e., the Ego.

 

Orai (Gr.). The name of the angel-ruler of Venus, according to the Egyptian Gnostics.

 

Orcus (Gr.). The bottomless pit in the Codex of the Nazarenes.

 

Örgelmir (Scand.). Lit., “seething clay”. The same as Ymir, the giant, the unruly, turbulent, erratic being, the type of primordial matter,

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out of whose body, after killing him, the sons of Bör created a new earth. He is also the cause of the Deluge in the Scandinavian Lays, for he flung his body into Ginnungagap, the yawning abyss; the latter being filled with it, the blood flowed over and produced a great flood in which all the Hrimthurses, the frost giants, were drowned; one of them only the cunning Bergelmir saves himself and wife in a boat and became the father of a new race of giants. “ And there were giants on the earth in those days.”

 

Orion (Gr.). The same as Atlas, who supports the world on his shoulders.

 

Orlog (Scand.). Fate, destiny, whose agents were the three Norns, the Norse Parcć.

 

Ormazd or Ahura Mazda (Zend). The god of the Zoroastrians or the modern Parsis. He is symbolized by the sun, as being the Light of Lights. Esoterically, he is the synthesis of his six Amshaspends or Elohim, and the creative Logos. In the Mazdean exoteric system, Ahura Mazda is the supreme god, and one with the supreme god of the Vedic age—Varuna, if we read the Vedas literally.

 

Orpheus (Gr.). Lit., the “tawny one”. Mythology makes him the son of Ćager and the muse Calliope. Esoteric tradition identifies him with Arjuna, the son of Indra and the disciple of Krishna. He went round the world teaching the nations wisdom and sciences, and establishing mysteries. The very story of his losing his Eurydice and finding her in the underworld or Hades, is another point of resemblance with the story of Arjuna, who goes to Pâtŕla (Hades or hell, but in reality the Antipodes or America) and finds there and marries Ulupi, the daughter of the Nâga king. This is as suggestive as the fact that he was considered dark in complexion even by the Greeks, who were never very fair-skinned themselves.

 

Orphic Mysteries or Orphica (Gr.). These followed, but differed greatly from, the mysteries of Bacchus. The system of Orpheus is one of the purest morality and of severe asceticism. The theology taught by him is again purely Indian. With him the divine Essence is inseparable from whatever is in the infinite universe, all forms being concealed from all eternity in It. At determined periods these forms are manifested from the divine Essence or manifest themselves. Thus through this law of emanation (or evolution) all things participate in this Essence, and are parts and members instinct with divine nature, which is omnipresent. All things having proceeded from, must necessarily return into it; and therefore, innumerable transmigrations or reincarnations and purifications are needed before this final consummation can take place. This is pure Vedânta philosophy. Again, the Orphic Brotherhood ate no

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animal food and wore white linen garments, and had many ceremonies like those of the Brahmans.

 

Oshadi Prastha (Sk.). Lit., “the place of medicinal herbs”. A mysterious city in the Himalayas mentioned even from the Vedic period. Tradition shows it as once inhabited by sages, great adepts in the healing art, who used only herbs and plants, as did the ancient Chaldees. The city is mentioned in the Kumâra Sambhava of Kalidasa.

 

Osiris. (Eg.). The greatest God of Egypt, the Son of Seb (Saturn), celestial fire, and of Neith, primordial matter and infinite space. This shows him as the self-existent and self-created god, the first manifesting deity (our third Logos), identical with Ahura Mazda and other “ First Causes”. For as Ahura Mazda is
one with, or the synthesis of, the Amshaspends, so Osiris, the collective unit, when differentiated and
personified, becomes Typhon, his brother, Isis and Nephtys his sisters, Horus his son and his other aspects. He was born at Mount Sinai, the Nyssa of the 0. T. (See- Exodus xvii. 15), and buried at Abydos, after being killed by Typhon at the early age of twenty-eight, according to the allegory. According to Euripides he is the same as Zeus and Dionysos or Dio-Nysos “the god of Nysa”, for Osiris is said by him to have been brought up in Nysa, in Arabia “the Happy”. Query: how much did the latter tradition influence, or have anything in common with, the statement in the Bible, that “Moses built an altar and called the name Jehovah Nissi”, or Kabbalistically—“Dio-Iao-Nyssi”? (See Isis Unveiled Vol. II. p. 165.) The four chief aspects of Osiris were—Osiris-Phtah (Light), the spiritual aspect; Osiris-Horus (Mind), the intellectual manasic aspect; Osiris-Lunus, the “ Lunar” or psychic, astral aspect; Osiris-Typhon, Daїmonic, or physical, material, therefore passional turbulent aspect. In these four aspects he symbolizes the dual Ego— the divine and the human, the cosmico-spiritual and the terrestrial.

Of the many supreme gods, this Egyptian conception is the most suggestive and the grandest, as it embraces the whole range of physical and metaphysical thought. As a solar deity he had twelve minor gods under him—the twelve signs of the Zodiac. Though his name is the “Ineffable”, his forty-two attributes bore each one of his names, and his seven dual aspects completed the forty-nine, or 7 X 7; the former symbolized by the fourteen members of his body, or twice seven. Thus the god is blended in man, and the man is deified into a god. He was addressed as Osiris-Eloh. Mr. Dunbar T. Heath speaks of a Phśnician inscription which, when read, yielded the following tumular inscription in honour of the mummy: “Blessed be Ta-Bai, daughter of Ta-Hapi, priest of Osiris-Eloh. She did nothing against anyone in anger. She spoke no falsehood against any one. Justified before

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Osiris, blessed be thou from before Osiris! Peace be to thee.” And then he adds the following remarks:
“The author of this inscription ought, I suppose, to be called a heathen, as justification before Osiris is the object of his religious aspirations. We find, however, that he gives to Osiris the appellation Eloh. Eloh is the name used by the Ten Tribes of Israel for the Elohim of Two Tribes. Jehovah-Eloh (Gen. iii. 21.) in the version used by Ephraim corresponds to Jehovah Elohim in that used by Judah and ourselves. This being so, the question is sure to be asked, and ought to be humbly answered—What was the meaning meant to be conveyed by the two phrases respectively, Osiris-Eloh and Jehovah-Eloh? For my part I can imagine but one answer, viz., that Osiris was the national God of Egypt, Jehovah that of Israel, and that Eloh is equivalent to Deus, Gott or Dieu”. As to his human development, he is, as the author of the Egyptian Belief has it . . . “One of the Saviours or Deliverers of Humanity . . . . As such he is born in the world. He came as a benefactor, to relieve man of trouble . . . . In his efforts to do good he encounters evil . . . and he is temporarily overcome. He is killed . . Osiris is buried. His tomb was the object of pilgrimage for thousands of years. But he did not rest in his grave. At the end of three days, or forty, he rose again and ascended to Heaven. This is the story of his Humanity” (
Egypt. Belief). And Mariette Bey, speaking of the Sixth Dynasty, tells us that “the name of Osiris . . commences to be more used. The formula of Justified is met with”: and adds that “it proves that this name (of the Justified or Makheru was not given to the dead only”. But it also proves that the legend of Christ was found ready in almost all its details thousands of years before the Christian era, and that the Church fathers had no greater difficulty than to simply apply it to a new personage.

 

Ossa. (Gr.) A mount, the tomb of the giants (allegorical).

 

Otz-Chiim. (Heb.). The Tree of Life, or rather of Lives, a name given to the Ten Sephiroth when arranged in a diagram of three columns. [w.w.w.]

 

Oulam, or Oulom (Heb.). This word does not mean “eternity” or infinite duration, as translated in the texts, but simply an extended time, neither the beginning nor the end of which can be known.

 

Ouranos (Gr.). The whole expanse of Heaven called the “Waters of Space”, the Celestial Ocean, etc.
The name very likely comes from the Vedic Varuna, personified as the water god and regarded as the chief Aditya among the seven planetary deities. In Hesiod’s Theogony, Ouranos (or Uranus) is the same
as Cślus (Heaven) the oldest of all the gods and the father of the divine Titans.

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